23
Mar

The Mummies Gallery

   Posted by: Keith Payne   

Categories: New Kingdom, Egypt in the News, Mummies

Meet the mummies of the Family of Tutankhamun Project!  If you are looking for a mummy-by-mummy summary of the recent JAMA article, then you are in luck! 

In The Mummies Gallery we will take a look at each of the mummies in both the study and control groups and pull together the familial and pathological data for easy referencing.

 

 

Before we meet the mummies, I should point out that the purpose of this article is only toprovide an easily readable summary of the data in the Journal of the American Medical Association report (“Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family.” Hawass, Zahi, Yehia Z. Gad, Somaia Ismail, et al, JAMA. 2010;303(7):638-647).  In this article I will not be critiquing or challenging the work, but neither do I wish to communicate that I am in 100% agreement.  For the current article, I am but the humble messenger.

The JAMA report is understandably heavy with medical jargon which I have attempted to present in non-technical terms.  However, I am not a physician, so when in doubt, double check my work.  If you find mistakes, please by all means report them in the Comments section!  You will be doing us all a favor!

As stated above, I will not be taking positions in this article on the data presented, but that does not mean I will not do so in future articles.  You, however, are encouraged to provide as much exegesis as you feel compelled to share.  Where you disagree with the data, speak your mind.  The whole purpose of The Mummies Gallery is to promote intelligent discussion by putting the JAMA report into layperson’s terms as much as possible.

I should also point out that I will not be delving too deeply into the genetic analyses in this current work.  Again, I reserve the right to do so in the coming weeks, but there is enough data to wade through by just sticking to the JAMA report’s conclusions.  Methodology shall be taken up, if at all, elsewhere.

Finally, I want to point out that there is a lot of repetition because I wanted each mummy to serve as a stand-alone entry.  In other words, I want the reader to be able to zip straight to a specific mummy and take in all the data in a glance without having to search through the full article to find the definition of a particular term.  However, even in the repetition there are subtle differences from mummy to mummy, so just because a paragraph starts off the same way it did for the last mummy, don’t assume the entire paragraph was cut-and-pasted!

So, without further adieu, I present the who’s-who of the chosen few of the Eighteenth Dynasty!

 

 

Tutankhamun (Study Group)

Tutankhamun

 

Identification and Kinship

Tut's HeadTutankhamun’s identity was known prior to the study.

Genetic fingerprinting on Tutankhamun was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of Tutankhamun’s genetic fingerprints showed: 

  • KV55 (Akhenaten) is 99.99999981% likely to be Tutankhamun’s father.
  • KV35YL is 99.99999997% likely to be Tutankhamun’s mother.
  • Tutankhamun is 99.97992885% likely to be the father of Fetus 1
  • Tutankhamun is 99.99999299% likely to be the father of Fetus 2

Cells in human males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome.  The Y chromosome, present only in men, is passed from father to son and is used to trace paternal genetic lines.  The Y chromosomal DNA from Tutankhamun was used to identify the mummy from KV55 (Akhenaten) as his father, and Amenhotep III as his paternal grandfather.

Tutankhamun’s mother, KV35YL, is possibly either Nebetah or Beketaten, two of Amenhotep III’s daughters not known to have married their father, making them possible wives of Akhenaten.  Nefertiti and Kiya have been excluded as candidates for Tutankhamun’s mother.  Whoever KV35YL proves to be, the JAMA report states that she is a full sister of Akhenaten, making her a daughter of Amenhotep III.  Neither Nefertiti nor Kiya are believed to be daughters of Amenhotep III.

Blood type is a categorization of blood based on the structure of red blood cells.  Blood tests have been conducted on both Tutankhamun and KV55 (Akhenaten) and it was determined that both were in the A2 human blood group.  Blood categorization is further subdivided by analysis of a pair of genetic markers called antigens.  There are 46 different antigens, and both Tutankhamun and Akhenaten had the M and N antigens.  Thus, sharing the A2 blood type with the MN antigen pair suggests a close familial relationship between KV55 and Tutankhamun.  (See Nunn, John F. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. London: Red River Books, 2002.  P. 84.)

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Cleft and highly arched palate, mild left clubfoot, crowded teeth, recessed (short) lower jaw, mild scoliosis, slightly hunched back.
  • Tut’s flat-shaped skull (brachycephalism) is attributed to a family trait rather than defect or disease.
  • Missing bone segments in left foot.
  • A diagnosis of gynecomastia—female-like breasts—or Marfan syndrome, a genetic condition which can also manifest in enlarged breasts, was not possible due to the condition of Tutankhamun’s mummy, which lacks the frontal part of the chest.  However, the normal development of Tutankhamun’s penis tends to cast doubt on any condition that would elevate estrogen (female hormones) or lessen testosterone (male hormones).

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Freiberg-Kohler’s disease in the left foot, resulting in bone deterioration and collapse at the ends of the metatarsals—the long bones of the foot.   This would have been a painful condition which would have probably required the young pharaoh to use a cane.  Although the condition results in bone death, it is aseptic, which means it would not normally result in an infection. 
  • The combination of club footedness, missing bone segments, and Freiberg-Kohler’s disease in the left foot, along with flat-footedness in the right foot, would have resulted in serious mobility issues for Tutankhamun.
  • Malaria tropica, multiple infections.  The presence of multiple strains of malaria tropica in Tutankhamun is open to interpretation.  He may have survived one or more full-blown infections, or it may have never progressed to a symptomatic stage.  It may have played a role in his death, or he may have never even known he was infected.
  • Compound fracture to the left thigh.  Of all the probable causes of Tutankhamun’s death, this seems the most likely.  It occurred shortly before his death, as evidenced by the lack of healing, and was probably not postmortem due to the presence of embalming fluids in the fracture.  It would have resulted in the bone tearing through the muscle and skin, and would have caused a severe infection.

 

 

Yuya (Study Group)

Yuya

 

Identification and Kinship

Mummy mask of YuyaYuya’s identity was known prior to the study.

Genetic fingerprinting on Yuya was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of both Yuya’s and Thuya’s genetic fingerprints showed they are 99.99999929% likely to be the parents of KV35EL (Tiye)

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Yuya’s head is slightly longer than normal (Dolichocephaly), which is attributed to a family trait rather than defect or disease. 
  • Yuya has fingers which are long and slender in relation to the width of his palm (Arachnodactyly), which may be a result of the embalming process or a natural variant rather than a disorder.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Non-infective dental abscesses.
  • Like Tutankhamun, Yuya shows evidence of multiple infections with malaria tropica which may or may not have ever developed into full-blown malaria.  The fact that Yuya lived to an advanced age suggests that he either acquired the disease late in life, survived an earlier bout/bouts, or may have developed partial immunity from environmental exposure (see JAMA, p. 646).
  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that Yuya had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.

 

 

Thuya (Study Group)

Thuya

  

Identification and Kinship

Mummy mask of ThuyaThuya’s identity was known prior to the study.

Genetic fingerprinting on Thuya was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of both Thuya’s and Yuya’s genetic fingerprints showed they are 99.99999929% likely to be the parents of KV35EL (Tiye)

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Severe scoliosis with hunched back, recessed (short) lower jaw.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Non-infective dental abscesses, hardening of the arteries.
  • Thuya has fingers which are long and slender in relation to the width of her palm (Arachnodactyly), which may be a result of the embalming process or a natural variant rather than a disorder.
  • Malaria tropica infection which may or may not have ever developed into full-blown malaria.  The fact that Thuya lived to an advanced age suggests that she either acquired the disease late in life, survived an earlier bout, or may have developed partial immunity from environmental exposure (see JAMA, p. 646).
  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that Thuya had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.

 

 

KV55—Akhenaten (Study Group)

KV55-Akhenaten

 

Identification and Kinship

KV55-AkhenatenThe idenification of Akhenaten was a key element of the Family of Tutankhamun Project because he ties the two previous generations to the two following generations.

Genetic fingerprinting on KV55 was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of KV55’s genetic fingerprints showed:

  • KV55 is 99.99999981% likely to be the father of Tutankhamun.
  • Amenhotep III is 99.99999999% likely to be KV55’s father.
  • Amenhotep III and KV35EL (Tiye) are 99.99999964% to be KV55’s parents.

Cells in human males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome.  The Y chromosome, present only in men, is passed from father to son and is used to trace paternal genetic lines.  The Y chromosomal DNA from the KV55 mummy was used to identify it as the son of Amenhotep III and the father of Tutankhamun.

Blood type is a categorization of blood based on the structure of red blood cells.  Blood tests have been conducted on both KV55 (Akhenaten) and Tutankhamun and it was determined that both were in the A2 human blood group.  Blood categorization is further subdivided by analysis of a pair of genetic markers called antigens.  There are 46 different antigens, and both Tutankhamun and Akhenaten had the M and N antigens.  Thus, sharing the A2 blood type with the MN antigen pair suggests a close familial relationship between KV55 and Tutankhamun.  (See Nunn, John F. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. London: Red River Books, 2002.  P. 84.)

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Cleft and highly arched palate, scoliosis, recessed (short) lower jaw, crowded teeth, facial asymmetry.
  • No proof was found of gynecomastia, Marfan syndrome, or any other congenital disorder which would have resulted in Akhenaten having a feminine body type as depicted in Amarna-style reliefs and statuary.  These depictions seem to be defined by artistic, religious, and political conventions rather than Akhenaten’s actual appearance.
  • A diagnosis of gynecomastia—female-like breasts—was not possible due to lack of observable tissue.  Akhenaten’s mummy is actually a mummified skeleton.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Abnormal bone growth in the sinus cavity, degenerative bone loss and abnormal bone growth in the femurs.

 

 

Amenhotep III (Study Group)

Amenhotep III

 

Identification and Kinship

Amenhotep IIIAmenhotep III’s identity was known prior to the study.

Genetic fingerprinting on Amenhotep III was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.”  The GenoProof analysis of Amenhotep III’s genetic fingerprints showed:

  • Amenhotep III is 99.99999999% likely to be KV55’s (Akhenaten’s) father.
  • Amenhotep III and KV35EL (Tiye) are 99.99999964% to be KV55’s (Akhenaten’s) parents.
  • KV55 (Akhenaten) is 99.99999981% likely to be Tutankhamun’s father, making Tutankhamun Amenhotep III’s grandson.

Cells in human males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome.  The Y chromosome, present only in men, is passed from father to son and is used to trace paternal genetic lines.  The Y chromosomal DNA from Amenhotep III was used to identify the mummy from KV55 (Akhenaten) as his son, and Tutankhamun as his grandson.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Recessed (short) lower jaw, highly arched palate, clubfoot.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Non-infective dental abscesses, progressive bone degeneration, erosions in the inner structure of the right side of the skull, degeneration of spinal disks.

 

 

KV35YL (Study Group)

KV35YL

 

Identification and Kinship

Genetic fingerprinting on KV35YL was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of KV35YL’s genetic fingerprints showed KV35YL is 99.99999997% likely to be Tutankhamun’s mother

KV35YL is not considered to be Nefertiti because the genetic fingerprinting shows that she is a full sister of Akhenaten (KV55), making her a daughter of Amenhotep III.  Since Nefertiti is not listed anywhere as a daughter of Amenhotep III, this seems to rule out KV35YL being Nefertiti.  Likewise, Kiya is not attested as a daughter of Amenhotep III, so she can be marked off the list.  Of Amenhotep III’s daughters, neither Nebetah nor Beketaten are known to have married their father, making them possible wives of Akhenaten, and thus, viable candidates for KV35YL.

It should be noted, however, that GenoProof data supporting the likelihood that KV35YL and KV55 were full siblings was not provided in the JAMA report.  It is not clear if this is a limitation of the test itself, or if the case for siblinghood between KV35YL and KV55 (Akhenaten) is not as strong as other relationships proposed in the JAMA article.  If the latter, then there may be room for some doubt about the positions in the above paragraph, and KV35YL may yet be identified as Nefertiti.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, recessed (short) lower jaw, crowded teeth, facial asymmetry.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Trauma (likely fatal) to the face and cranium.

 

  

KV35EL—Tiye (Study Group)

KV35EL-Tiye

 

Identification and Kinship

QueenTiy01-AltesMuseum-BerlinThe identification of Queen Tiye was one of the major accomplishments of the project.

Genetic fingerprinting on KV35EL was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of KV35EL’s genetic fingerprints showed:

  • Yuya and Thuya are 99.99999929% likely to be the parents of KV35EL (Tiye)
  • Amenhotep III and KV35EL (Tiye) are 99.99999964% to be KV55’s (Akhenaten’s) parents.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Mild scoliosis, misshapen ears.
  • Tiye has fingers which are long and slender in relation to the width of her palm (Arachnodactyly), which may be a result of the embalming process or a natural variant rather than a disorder.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Thyroid dysfunction\goiter.
  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that Tiye had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.

 

 

Fetus 1 (Study Group)

KV62 Fetus 1

 

Identification and Kinship

Genetic fingerprinting on Fetus 1 was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of Fetus 1’s genetic fingerprints showed Tutankhamun is 99.97992885% likely to be the father of Fetus 1

Complete genetic data sets for Fetus 1 could not be obtained after repeated attempts.  Part of the ongoing work of the project involves more rigorous examination of mitochondrial (maternal) DNA, which could provide more data about Fetus 1.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • No detectable congenital disorders.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Stillbirth.

 

 

Fetus 2 (Study Group)

KV62 Fetus 2

 

Identification and Kinship

Genetic fingerprinting on Fetus 2 was analyzed by a software package called GenoProof which calculates the likelihood of paternity and/or kinship.  A probability of more than 99.73% is regarded as “practically proven.” 

The GenoProof analysis of Fetus 2’s genetic fingerprints showed Tutankhamun is 99.99999299% likely to be the father of Fetus 2

Complete genetic data sets for Fetus 2 could not be obtained after repeated attempts.  Part of the ongoing work of the project involves more rigorous examination of mitochondrial (maternal) DNA, which could provide more data about Fetus 2.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Mild scoliosis

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Stillbirth.

 

 

KV21A (Study Group)

KV21A

 

Identification and Kinship

Complete genetic data sets for KV21A could not be obtained after repeated attempts.  Part of the ongoing work of the project involves more rigorous examination of mitochondrial (maternal) DNA, which could provide more data about KV21A.

KV21A could possibly be Ankhesenamun, but will require further analysis to be sure.  The possibility that she is Ankhesenamun was certainly not ruled out.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, clubfeet.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • None diagnosed.

 

 

KV21B (Study Group)

KV21B

 

Identification and Kinship

Complete genetic data sets for KV21B could not be obtained after repeated attempts.  Part of the ongoing work of the project involves more rigorous examination of mitochondrial (maternal) DNA, which could provide more data about KV21B.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, clubfeet.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • None diagnosed.

 

 

CCG61065 (Control Group)

Mummy CCG61065

 

Identification and Kinship

Identifying the mummies of the control group was not a stated goal of the current phase of the study, and genetic information on the control group was not provided in the JAMA article.  Mummy CCG61065, previously thought to be that of Thutmose I, remains unidentified.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, hunched back, misaligned pelvis.
  • CCG61065’s head is slightly longer than normal (Dolichocephaly), which is attributed to a family trait rather than defect or disease. 

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Malaria tropica.  It seems unlikely that CCG61065 was suffering from full-blown malaria at the time of his death, as he died of an arrow wound, a fairly good sign that he died in battle.  Someone suffering from malaria tropica, the most severe form of malaria, is not going to have much fight in him.
  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that CCG61065 had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.
  • Traumatic arrow wound, presumed to be fatal, to the chest.

 

 

Thutmose II (Control Group)

Thutmose II

 

Identification and Kinship

Thutmose IIThutmose II’s identity was known prior to the study.

Although in the control group, Thutmose II was not included in the genetic control group.

 

  

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, hunched back, hollow feet (high arches), recessed (short) lower jaw, crowded teeth, misshapen ears.
  • Thutmose II’s head is slightly longer than normal (Dolichocephaly), which is attributed to a family trait rather than defect or disease. 

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Calcified heart valves
  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that Thutmose II had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.

 

 

Ahmose-Nefertari (Control Group)

Ahmose-Nefertari

 

Identification and Kinship

Ahmose-NefertariAhmose-Nefertari’s identity was known prior to the study.

Although in the control group, Ahmose-Nefertari was not included in the morphological control group

 

  

Congenital Disorders

  • None reported in the JAMA article.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • None reported in the JAMA article.

 

 

Hatshepsut (Control Group)

Hatshepsut

 

Identification and Kinship

HatshepsutHatshepsut’s identity was known prior to the study.

 

 

  

  

Congenital Disorders

  • Recessed (short) lower jaw

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Slipped disk (L5-S1).
  • Infective dental abscesses.  Hatshepsut’s abscesses were serious enough to have caused fatal blood poisoning (septicemia).  This may have caused or contributed to her death.  In the very least, her final days were not pleasant. 
  • Probable metastatic bone cancer of the left hip/pelvis.  As with her dental abscesses, Hatshepsut’s cancer was serious enough to have caused or contributed to her death.

 

 

Sitra-In (Control Group)

Sitra-In

 

Identification and Kinship

Sitra-In’s identity was known prior to the study.

 

Congenital Disorders

  • Scoliosis, hunched back, misshapen ears.

 

Acquired Disorders

  • Incisional hernia.  As the name suggests, this is a hernia where the tissues of the abdomen, and sometimes even abdominal organs, push through the muscle layer where an incision has occurred.  The result is a painful bulge at the spot under the skin where the tissue breaks through.  An incisional hernia is usually a postoperative complication resulting from abdominal surgery.  While it is not outside the realm of possibility that Sitra-In had undergone some form of medical procedure, the presence of incisional hernias in seven of the sixteen mummies in the study seems suspicious.  It is possible that what is being called an incisional hernia is a postmortem result of the embalming process.

 

 

See Also 

 

Copyright by Keith Payne, 2010.  All rights reserved.

Photos “Tutankhamun” from The Griffith Institute (Howard Carter Archive), “tuyu2” from Davis, Theodore M., Maspero Gaston, and Carter Howard. The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou. London: Archibald Constable and Co., 1907, pl III, “TutChildMummy1” and “TutChildMummy2” from Reeves, Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames and Hudson, 1990, “Yuyacolor”, and “Hatshepsut7” courtesy of The Theban Mummy Project.  Photos “Amenhotep iii”, “amenhotep iv akhanaten”, “KV35YL”, “kv35el”, “ccg61065 thutmose I”, “thutmoses ii”, and  “Ahmose-Nefertari” courtesy of the University of Chicago’s Electronic Open Stacks copy of Catalogue General Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire: The Royal Mummies, by G. Elliot Smith (Cairo, 1912).  Photos “41_tut”, “Mummy mask of Yuya”, “32_tuya”, “34_akhenaten_small”, and “amenhotep III” by Jon Bodsworth are copyright free.  Photos “QueenTiy01-AltesMuseum-Berlin” by Keith Schengili-Roberts and “Hatshepsut_1” by Postdlf are used in accordance with the GNU Free Documentation License.  Photo “Ahmesz_Nefertari2005” courtesy of Leoboudv and is used in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

This entry was posted on Tuesday, March 23rd, 2010 at 1:30 am and is filed under New Kingdom, Egypt in the News, Mummies. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

14 comments so far

dave hay
avatar
 1 

Keith this is absolutely brilliant stuff. Have really enjoyed reading this posting, best regards mate daveh.

March 23rd, 2010 at 3:47 pm
avatar
 2 

Hi Keith,

You’ve deciphered the JAMA report and made it easily digestible for us with this fantasitic layout. I love the card format that you have used to present the summaries.

Nice work!

March 23rd, 2010 at 4:03 pm
avatar
 3 

Dave and Vincent,

Thanks for the support! I am pleased with how the card format worked. I originally wanted to do them baseball card-style, but there was too much info to fit in without using a ridiculously small font, so I have to settle for more of an index card look. But still, very pleased!

The next article will be all you ever needed to know (and more) about King Tut’s feet! Look for it in a day or two.

March 23rd, 2010 at 5:11 pm
avatar
 4 

Hello Shemsu Sesen

OOOH that Sitra-In identification really does not sit well with me based on a couple of damaged hieroglyphs in a valley where only five people out of hundreds of burials were still lying in their original coffins.

Very useful run down on a very complicated subject and I can now confirm with my little girl that indeed mummies do wear bows!

Cheers

March 24th, 2010 at 1:30 am
avatar
 5 

Of course mummies wear bows! You have to tie off all that wrapping somewhere!

Thanks for the heads-up on Sitra-In, I will have to look into that a little more for a follow-up. So far I am working on specific articles about Tut’s feet, the androgyny issue, malaria, and the Nefertiti question.

I also have some questions in to Mark Rose, who is (or maybe already has) interviewing Carston Pusch this week, and kindly offrered to take questions.

A reader on the previous article, Families and Frailties of the Eighteenth Dynasty, had asked some questions which shone light on the fact that Ahmose-Nefertari had not been CT scanned, and whetehr or not the genetic info about the control group would be published.

So I passed these and another question or two to Mark via his own blog, and hopefully he will pass them on to Dr. Pusch. Otherwise I will have to begin my relentless quest of banging on cyber doors. And I AM relentless at that… 😉

Have you written on anything about Sitra-In, or can you recommend anything to get me started?

Thanks as always, Tim!

March 24th, 2010 at 7:58 am
Catharine McRae
avatar
 6 

Hi,

Very interesting site! Two thoughts occur to me.

1. although In Sitre was a nurse of Hatshepsut, the descriotion of her mummy seems to indicate she has the same physical defects as the royals so she herself may have been a member of the royal family she served.

2. Sorry, but altho all the genetic info about KVss is correct, he is Tut’s father, he is a son of AIII and KV35EL (Tiye), has the same blood type as Tut, etc. there is no reason to conclude he is Akhenaten. It simply indicates he is a son of AIII and Tiye. The higher age range data is far from cast in stone at this point. And despite objections to the contrary, there is some very sound DNA evidence to the point that this is not Akhenaten. (see Bickerstaff)

Cathay

July 26th, 2010 at 5:53 pm
avatar
 7 

Hi Cathay,

Thank you for the kind word, but especially thank you for contributing to the conversation!

Both of your observations are very reasonable, and I would even go so far as to say that the likelihood of KV55 being Akhenaten is 50/50 at best, probably lower, and both Kate Phizackerley and Dennis Forbes (“Tutankhamun’s Family Ties Full of Knots.” KMT, vol. 21, no. 2, Summer 2010, pp. 19-35), along with Bickerstaff, raise considerable doubts about the Family of Tutankhamun Project’s conclusions.

I think it is safe to say that most people who have carefully read the JAMAstudy have concluded there are a number of rushes to judgment. Mark Rose is still trying to get an interview with Dr. Carsten Pusch (at least he had not done so as of June 9th, 2010.. that may have changed by now), and hopefully there will be some clarification.

Thanks again, and I hope you decide to continue to add your insights to Em Hotep!

July 26th, 2010 at 9:06 pm
Alžbeta
avatar
 8 

history zaujímavé ?ítanie a dá to ve?a práce,obdivujem bádate?ov…prajem ve?a ?alších úspechov,nech sa Vám darí………….
Alžbeta

May 9th, 2012 at 3:13 pm
avatar
 9 

Dakujem vám, Alžbeta, ste vel’mi láskavý! 🙂

–Keith

May 10th, 2012 at 1:31 am
Richard O'Neill
avatar
 10 

This is the best article that i have read on this, very informative, well written and a lot easier to understand than the JAMA Report and subsequent reports on the same subject…..

October 24th, 2012 at 3:45 am
Alexander
avatar
 11 

This was very helpful in my research.

November 9th, 2012 at 1:01 pm
paul roberts
avatar
 12 

This is very helpful Great work Keith
thanks
Paul

December 16th, 2012 at 4:22 pm
Robert Charles
avatar
 13 

I’m very late to the party, but:
Re: Nefertiti and YL35, convincing portrait/mummy analyses have noted the similarities between the famous portrait bust (and many other portraits) and this mummy’s profile and long neck. The well-known Amarna letter in which is written “My husband is dead … I am afraid, send me a husband, etc” generally attributed to Ankhesenamun could well be from Nefertiti, who disappears suddenly from historical records some time after Akhnaten died. Was she murdered? Could she be YL35, obviously fatally wounded?
The only question, of course, is where did Nefertiti come from if not known by historical records as a sister of Akhnaten …

October 16th, 2016 at 12:54 pm
Tom Woldridge
avatar
 14 

What a wonderful article. Thanks to the author.

May 18th, 2017 at 7:43 am

2 Trackbacks/Pings

  1. The Amarna Period: The Last Heiress by Stephanie Liaci (2011) | L.T. Patridge    Jan 18 2014 / 1pm:

    […] children to protect her position. In the past few years, DNA testing has established that we have (probably) found the mummy of Ankhesenamun. The mummy’s head has gone missing since its initial […]

  2. The Embalming is unveiled: the rebirth of the Ka of the deceased. | archeologiamisterica    Jun 20 2016 / 6pm:

    […] The Mummies Gallery […]

Leave a reply

Name (*)
Mail (will not be published) (*)
URI
Comment