The legacy Pharaoh Snefru left to his heir, Khufu, included more than the crown and wealth of the Old Kingdom.  Building on an architectural and engineering revolution that stretched at least as far back as Pharaoh Djoser’s Master Builder, Imhotep, Khufu’s own architect Hemiunu was determined to build a monument that would last the ages.  To say the least, he was successful.

But erecting the final resting place of a god-king involved more than structural and aesthetic considerations.  Hemiunu was creating sacred ground, and within Khufu’s holy mountain there were specific paths to be trodden and a celestial order of operations to be observed.

Beginning with the physical evidence from the pyramid, Jean-Pierre Houdin pieces these ancient traditions together in a way that suggests where to look and what to look for in unlocking the secrets of the Great Pyramid.  This is the third in a series of articles and interviews conducted by Marc Chartier with Jean-Pierre and other key members of Team Khufu, provided in English exclusively to Em Hotep.

In his studies of the Great Pyramid, presented in Khufu Reborn (read the exclusive interview given by the author to Pyramidales), Jean-Pierre Houdin has identified a “Noble Circuit”, namely the ritual route inside the monument followed during the Pharaoh’s funeral. One stage of this circuit did not pass unnoticed, and for good reason: two antechambers with corbelled vaults, a few meters before the entrance to the King’s Chamber, designed to shelter the sovereign’s goods and personal possessions.

Here Jean-Pierre Houdin contributes a few remarks in addition to the interview mentioned above, for readers of Pyramidales.

In the summer of 2003, when Jean-Pierre Houdin had already invested several thousand hours in 3D computer modeling, he made an observation that led him to suspect the existence of two antechambers in the pyramid of Khufu. A “dark zone” in the middle of the known internal structures kept coming up in his research. He could already distinguish this zone by analysis of micro-gravimetric readings that were in his possession but, oddly, had been overlooked. Now comparative observations of pyramids from the Third and Fourth Dynasties provided an answer to this dark zone.

The architect did not in fact consider the pyramid of Khufu as an isolated monument, even if it was the most famous in ancient Egypt. He placed it in a lineage, in an architectural scheme in which, from the stepped pyramid of Djoser to the smooth pyramids, each pyramid designer built on the innovations used in previous ones, while further developing the architectural concept. This is what Jean-Pierre Houdin sums up with the term “inheritance.” Khufu did not escape the rule.


Two Observations

Two observations in particular captured the architect’s attention.

Firstly, the strange misalignment of the corridors and the Grand Gallery in the pyramid of Khufu, relative to the north-south axis. Such an offset could not be the result of chance. Nor could it be a “mistake” made by the Egyptian architects: they knew their job perfectly, based on solid tradition. So this could not possibly be an error, but a project, a plan, even if it is not necessarily easy to grasp at first glance, especially when we are bogged down in what Jean-Pierre Houdin calls “consensus thinking”.

After years spent 3D-modeling numerous potential solutions, illumination – the second observation, the real turning point of Khufu Reborn – was finally provided by another pyramid: the Red Pyramid, the last construction of Snefru, Khufu’s father. So, what was observed? This pyramid, built just before that of Khufu, encloses two magnificent antechambers with corbelled roofs, in front of the entrance to the funeral chamber. They are level with the base of the pyramid, although the chamber is nearly 8 m higher. This was a change in pyramid architecture: the funeral apartments had gained in height.

“Why, all of a sudden,” Jean-Pierre Houdin wondered, “did Khufu’s architects abandon this type of antechamber? They already had a lot to tackle, with the new roofing technique (flat ceiling) for the King’s Chamber, and they were not going to change everything from one pyramid to the next. They had a duty to respect their tradition, thus to ‘develop’ but not ‘revolutionize’ ”.

The two antechambers and the funerary chamber of the Red Pyramid

The two antechambers and the funerary chamber of the Red Pyramid

The two antechambers and the funerary chamber of Khufu’s Pyramid: a perfect copy and paste

The two antechambers and the funerary chamber of Khufu’s Pyramid: a perfect copy and paste

Jean-Pierre continued his reasoning thus: “An experiment was called for: one of taking the antechambers from the Red Pyramid of Khufu’s father and quite simply ‘pasting’ them into his son’s pyramid, on a ‘design grid’ made up of one-cubit-sided squares. (1 cubit = 52.36 cm.) The funereal apartments of the Red Pyramid then appeared perfectly positioned in the pyramid of Khufu.”

“My investigation was making clear progress,” adds the architect-researcher. “I had a perfect antechamber model, similar to those we can visit today in the Red Pyramid at Dashur. And using CATIA 3D design software from Dassault Systèmes, I merely had to paste this model onto the Khufu grid, taking into account various factors already known or that I had found:

  • for the Queen’s Chamber: a second entrance, a section of the ‘Noble Circuit’ and a marked deviation in the northern shaft;
  • for the King’s Chamber: a very precisely located second entrance and a bizarrely routed northern shaft.

And here again: surprise! The model fitted perfectly. Not only did both the antechambers from the Red Pyramid ‘fit’ the grid perfectly, but they were centered on the north-south axis. The two antechambers from the Red Pyramid and the associated ‘Noble Corridor’ fit perfectly into the pyramid of Khufu. The interior architecture of the Great Pyramid was finally beginning to look like the funereal architecture of Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty.”

The Red Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khufu:  Look for the Similarity!

The press release summarizing Jean-Pierre’s research and conclusions and issued at the official presentation of Khufu Reborn on January 27, 2011, provides further explanations:

The Red Pyramid has the purest plan. The funeral chamber is in the edifice, preceded by two antechambers. The access corridor, antechambers and the chamber are perfectly aligned along the monument’s axis. The antechambers served to store the funeral belongings left to the deceased.

This very pure plan and these antechambers, led Jean-Pierre Houdin to wonder about Khufu’s inheritance. No antechambers in his pyramid, strangely offset corridors? Why this apparent inconsistency in the plan for the Great Pyramid? Why was the technique of antechambers with corbelled vaults, long since perfectly mastered, not used again? Would Khufu have had no goods? Hard to imagine for a king who left us the most imposing monument ever!

Hence the intuition by the author of Khufu Reborn to superimpose plans for the two pyramids. Let’s read on:

Jean-Pierre Houdin raised the corridor from the Red Pyramid and the antechambers so that the latter became those of Khufu’s chamber. They match perfectly. Better still, an explanation emerges for the well known misalignment of the descending and ascending corridors and the Grand Gallery. On the other hand, the set of antechambers is located precisely along the north-south axis and the west wall of the second antechamber is on a perfect alignment with the west wall of the King’s Chamber!

View from above

View from above

Although the current descending and ascending corridors of the Grand Gallery are generally considered as the circuit by which Khufu’s mortal remains were transported into his pyramid, Jean-Pierre Houdin has always challenged the funereal character of the Grand Gallery. For him, it was only a slide used to house the counterweight system.

Furthermore, using this passage poses an insoluble problem in connection with the sealing of the King’s Chamber. The granite block that obstructed the north-east entrance to the King’s Chamber (which entrance is not to be confused with the other one – the real one – on the west side of the chamber’s north wall), which was removed by Al-Ma’mun, could only be put back in place from the inside. And it is inconceivable to consider that a few unfortunate workers were walled up alive in the company of the dead king!

The pyramid’s plan can now be viewed in a new light. On the one hand, a consistent architectural legacy between the Red Pyramid and that of Khufu is re-established; on the other, the offset in the distribution of the corridors, considered strange until now, is explained.

As Jean-Pierre Houdin’s research progressed, his intuition, nurtured by further clues and a comparative study of pyramids from the Third and Fourth Dynasties, became a conviction: the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid, just like the internal layout of the Red Pyramid, based on the logic of architectural legacy, was itself preceded by two antechambers with corbelled vaults.

One final observation: inside the second antechamber of the Red Pyramid, high up, three pairs of circular holes face each other. The upper level of these holes is at exactly the same level as the floor of the corridor leading to the funeral chamber. According to Jean-Pierre Houdin, these holes were used to embed wooden beams across the antechamber and, over these beams, Egyptian builders placed a kind of “piston” made from a long piece of wood operated from below by a system of ropes. Pulling on these ropes pushed the piston forward in the corridor leading to the King’s Chamber. The piston then moved a block forward, sliding on a very thin layer of sand, and ended up resting against the floor of the King’s Chamber and sealing its entrance forever.

This closure block had quite simply been stored in the corridor’s east wall, in a small perpendicular passage in which its “twin” was also stored; a clever system, based on a pushing block and derived from a closure technique by drop-stone trap in the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, pushed the two twinned blocks from a notch, once a wedge has been removed: the closure block was located in the corridor ready to be pushed by the piston and its twin took its place in the wall. This system can be observed in the Red Pyramid.

For Jean-Pierre Houdin, the transfer of this technique to the pyramid of Khufu seems to be a logical conclusion. Why – in what quest for originality – would the Great Pyramid’s builders have refrained from what, as a means of sealing a pyramid, was without any doubt the fruit of an architectural legacy, which, moreover, nothing would have allowed them to disregard?

 Many Centuries of Archaeological Myopia

Even if it meant facing the wrath of the higher echelons of Egyptology or researchers with various degrees of training in the vast and inexhaustible field of pyramidology, Jean-Pierre Houdin could no longer escape his own convictions: in his view, a structural analysis of the monument sheds new light on the real route of the funeral procession inside the Great Pyramid.

In this approach, without claiming to play the killjoy or, worse still, the kamikaze, he expects to have to confront many centuries of archaeological myopia. But his new plan of the Great Pyramid, in his opinion, has the merit of being based on history and sound reasoning, and, as well as being geometrically correct, explaining the many strange features in the pyramid’s design.

Above all, in the architect’s view, it provides King Khufu with the antechambers for the royal funeral goods, a logical deduction far removed from the fantasies of the treasure hunters.

In connection with these antechambers, Jean-Pierre Houdin likes to quote something a friend wrote to him in congratulation: “You have filled a historic void with a hole that dates back several millennia…”

That sums it up…


Clues from the Red Pyramid

“The Red Pyramid at Dashur has two antechambers. Inside the second, high up, three pairs of circular holes facing each other. The upper level of these holes is at exactly the same level as the floor of the corridor leading to the funereal chamber. I considered that these holes had been used to embed wooden beams across the antechamber and over these beams, Egyptian builders had placed a kind of ‘piston’ made from a long piece of wood operated from below by a system of ropes. Just pulling on the ropes was enough to advance the piston into the corridor. Thus it pushed the block, sliding on a very thin layer of sand, ending up resting against the floor of the King’s Chamber and sealing its entrance forever.

This scenario was perfect, but still needed one most important answer: how do you push a block that could not have been lifted high enough, and that could not have been stored in the corridor because it would have prevented the funeral procession from passing. This squares the circle!

I have found part of the answer in another pyramid of Snefru: the Bent Pyramid, built just before the Red Pyramid.” (Jean-Pierre Houdin)

Clues from the Bent Pyramid

“To block the passage and prevent access to Snefru’s funereal chamber, the architects had installed two enormous portcullises in the corridor leading to it that, were retained in very narrow and inaccessible recesses before being lowered. The most interesting thing for me was the way in which these portcullises were released to block the passage:

  • firstly, in the raised position, they were held leaning on a small block that prevented them remaining stuck in place at the moment they were released;
  • secondly, a simple wooden wedge (in red) held them in this raised position.

To close the passage, the workers just had to remove the wedge and the portcullis was lowered automatically.”

Copyright by Marc Chartier, 2011.  All rights reserved.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

This entry was posted on Friday, April 29th, 2011 at 3:43 pm and is filed under Old Kingdom, Pyramids, The Giza Plateau. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

10 comments so far


A great set if articles that raise a lot of questions!
The proposed sealing mechanism for the antechambers is the same as the Red Pyramid; however, how was the burial chamber sealing block stored in the Red? I haven’t found any information that describes that. Though a very sound functionally, is the proposed “portcullis” method even necessary? The post holes in the corbelled roof could be used to serve two functions, lifting the block and then sealing.

The ‘noble circuit’ entrance. No detail is addressed in the article but what is the proposed sealing method here? I assume that it is placing a stone which is of the same dimensions of the other ceiling stones of the descending passage. Why would this differ from how the known ascending passage was hidden (or does it)? The ‘noble circuit’ entrance, if it existes, has successfully hidden the entrance for thousands of years while the known passage failed. Is it truly a case of luck that the “robbers” hit the junction point while tunneling?

Where the known entrances to the queen and kings chamber sealed to give a flush appearance from the inside as well?

The limestone gables over the original descending corridor entrance at the face of the pyramid never made much sense to me and I’ve always thought they are a clue that something more is going on. In Jean-Pierre’s theory they are given a function that fits, gables support a void. I think the strongest hint that there is more to the great pyramid are the routing of the northern shafts from the queens and kings chamber. The paths deviate for a reason and Jean-Pierre’s theory provides a very straight forward explanation that fits perfectly with what we know of the Red Pyramid.

Lastly, I think that there are some very good non-destructive testing options for confirming his theory. The best of which IMO is thermal. Locating the external ramps may be easiest because they are, in theory, very close to the outer surface of the pyramid. FLIR imaging during transition from day time heating and night time cooling may be all that is needed. It may also be a great tool to confirm the existence of blocked passages in the Kings, Queens and original entrance (Flood the original passages with cold air and image the stones at suspected passages. Solid walls with mass behind them will resist temp change while stones with open space behind will cool faster (time lapse heat transfer).

May 2nd, 2011 at 5:33 pm

Hi Micah,

Thank you for reading and thank you for your questions. I think some of them willl be addressed in upcoming articles, and I also know that Jean-Pierre regularly checks in here, so maybe he will have some response as well. Either way, I will make sure that any unanswered questions are passed along!

Pleased stay tuned!


May 3rd, 2011 at 3:59 pm
Richard O'Neill

Fantastic article, really enjoy Emhotep’s Houdin stuff……awesome stuff, keep it coming

October 30th, 2012 at 9:00 pm
Richard O'Neill

with regard to the Notch that was briefly investigated by Bob Brier in the Houdin DVD, has anyone considered sending in a mini robot like djedi into the openings at the rear of the notch?

October 30th, 2012 at 9:05 pm

Hey Richie,

Nice to see more of my Facebook family on Em Hotep 😀 I am glad you are enjoying the articles, we have a lot of interesting stuff heading your way.

Regarding sending a robot crawler into the Notch, Jean-Pierre has been working with Laval University in Quebec to do even less intrusive work than that, such as infrared scanning. The folks at Laval have used this technology with other heritage sites, and it could show that there is something actually there to explore with a crawler.

Unfortunately work is currently stalled because of the political climate, but that is getting better, so hopefully we will learn more.

We are coming up on some anniversaries with regard to the Egyptological work supported by Dassault Systèmes and their technology. Jean-Pierre’s Khufu Reborn is coming up on a two-year anniversary, Giza 3D is coming up on a one-year anniversary, and the huge article I did on the Djedi Project with Shaun Whitehead is also coming up on a one year anniversary, and I have follow-ups on all of those planned for Em Hotep. Since there is so much cross-over, I would expect several opportunities to raise your question to the people “in the know”, so stay tuned.


November 2nd, 2012 at 9:51 am
Hassan khorshid

Great work

November 3rd, 2012 at 5:46 am
Rich Gonzalez

Fantastic site! I have been fascinated by the pyramids my whole life and regularly scour the internet for new information. Your site is the best I have found.
I cannot wait for confirmation of Houdin’s theories and discovery and exploration of the two antechambers.
Keep up the great work Keith.

Rich, Tennessee

December 12th, 2012 at 4:18 pm
Rob Wurth

Wonderful articles! I was inside Khufu in May last year and am disappointed that I wasn’t aware of this theory at that time. It seems far more credible than and other theory, however I still have some questions. Khafre would not require the counter-weight system in the Grand Gallery as it has no known central chamber, but should still have the internal ramp. Is there any research/evidence for this?
My second question is that why couldn’t the smooth outer limstone be added after the rough shape is finished? Menkaure clearly shows the outer layer being added last. Given the large scale and large number of workers, I believe that work may have in fact been conducted on several aspects of construction at the same time in order to speed up the process. Similar to modern brick-layers, each building a corner, then bricking across later. Higher corners also add strength and allow the angles to be better controlled. Other teams would have been working purely on the main chamber roof and others on the outer casing. In this way the entire grand gallery may have been done in one continuous build. Obviously, level completion is still very important as there would be a limit on the number of levels that blocks can be raised to. I eagerly await further results from thermal etc.

March 3rd, 2013 at 3:28 am

Great work… !!! (y)

November 11th, 2013 at 12:41 pm
Paul O'Neill

One more question if I may,..

I recall from the “Khufu Reborn” video online the narrator speaking of a 1st century BC greek writer pretty much exactly describing how to enter the noble route from the northern entrance.
Can we pretty much conclude from this that, in the event of these Antechamber Chambers being rediscovered, that any funerary goods will have been looted in antiquity (i.e. long before the 9th century AD Arab invader vandalized the “service” routes and entered the KC?

September 6th, 2014 at 2:52 am

One Trackback/Ping

  1. Unlocking the Final Mystery of the Great Pyramid - Historum - History Forums    Mar 29 2017 / 4pm:

    […] Khufu?s Inheritance: Jean-Pierre Houdin Discusses the Noble Circuit and Deciphering the Pyramid […]

Leave a reply

Name (*)
Mail (will not be published) (*)