Em Hotep Digest vol. 02 no. 09: Pharaoh Snefru’s Pyramids
12
Mar

Em Hotep Digest vol. 02 no. 09: Pharaoh Snefru’s Pyramids

   Posted by: Shemsu Sesen   

Categories: Em Hotep Digest

209 - tabIn this Em Hotep Digest we study Snefru’s three large pyramids—the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid.  As always we have photography from Em Hotep regular contributors Heidi Kontkanen and Richie O’Neill as well as some lovely photography from the Creative Commons.  Come with us as we examine the stage where the pattern for the large Fourth Dynasty pyramid complexes were worked out as the transition was made from step pyramids to the first true pyramid.

banner snefrus pyramids

 

Contributors:  Celeste Albo, Jon Bodsworth, Yvonne Buskens, Lorraine Evans, Ia Georgia, Ivrienen, Heidi Kontkanen, Mark Lauria, Vicky Metafora, Richie O’Neill, Keith Payne, José Luis Santos, François Tonic, Chanel Wheeler and everyone who contributed to the various posts and conversations in the Em Hotep BBS Facebook group.

Would you like to be a part of the Em Hotep group?  Doing so is easy.  Just follow this link to the Em Hotep BBS group on Facebook and request to be added.  A member will add you as soon as we notice you have requested to join.  Read the About section at the Facebook group site to get an idea of our few rules, and then join in.  It’s that easy.

 

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

 

 

Snefru—Innovator and Builder of Three Grand Pyramids

 

From “The Old Kingdom” by Jaromir Malek in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw, ed.

“In the reign of King Snefru (Horus Nebmaat, 2613—2589 BC) the external form of the royal tomb changed to that of a true pyramid.  The might be regarded as a straightforward architectural development if it were not for other profound changes that occurred at the same time.  New elements were added to the overall plan, and together they now formed a pyramid complex.  A new orientation was applied to its plan (the main axis of the complex was now from east to west, while previously the north-south direction predominated).  The pyramid temple that served as the focus of the funerary cult was built against the eastern face of the pyramid (that of Djoser is to the north).  It was linked by a causeway to a valley temple, close to the edge of the cultivated area further to the east, which provided a monumental entrance to the whole complex.  A small satellite pyramid was placed near the southern face of the pyramid proper.  These architectural innovations must have resulted directly from changes in the doctrine concerning the king’s afterlife.  It seems that the earlier astronomically oriented star concepts were gradually being modified by the incorporation of ideas centered around the sun-god Re.  Although textual evidence is lacking, already at this early stage beliefs concerning Osiris were probably also beginning to influence Egyptian concepts of the afterlife.

The stele from the eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The stele from the eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

“Snefru, probably as the result of planning that went wrong rather than by choice, had two pyramids constructed at Dashur, to the south of Saqqara.  The first is the southern Rhomboidal (or Bent) Pyramid, where the angle of the sloping sides was altered some two-thirds up its height after structural flaws had been discovered during its construction.  The other is the northern Red Pyramid (named from the color of the limestone blocks used in the core of the structure), in which Snefru was buried.  He may also have started, and towards the end of his reign completed, a third structure at Meidum, still further south.  Visitors who came to see it in the Eighteenth Dynasty, some 1200 years later, made it quite clear in their graffiti that they thought it belonged to Snefru.  It is possible that it was originally conceived as a step pyramid for Snefru’s predecessor Huni (more correctly known as Nysuteh, and perhaps also to be equated with Horus Qahedjet, 2637—2613 BC), but a substantial contribution to the pyramid of one’s predecessor would be unique in Egyptian history.  Snefru’s later reputation as a benign ruler may owe much to the etymology of his name, in that snefer can be translated as ‘to make beautiful’” (p. 93).

The Bent Pyramid from the Red Pyramid with pyramidion (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid from the Red Pyramid with pyramidion (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

 

divider bar 03

 

 

Snefru’s First Pyramid:  The Meidum Pyramid

 

From The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries by Mark Lehner

“When Snefru, the first king of Manetho’s Fourth Dynasty, came to the throne around 2575 BC, Djoser’s was the only large royal pyramid that stood complete.  Snefru would become the greatest pyramid-builder in Egyptian history by constructing three colossal pyramids (at Meidum and the Bent and North [Red] pyramids at Dashur) and the smaller one at Seila—a total mass of stone that exceeds even that of his son Khufu, in the Great Pyramid at Giza.

001 The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Chanel Wheeler)

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Chanel Wheeler)

“Like Djoser’s Step Pyramid, Meidum was built in stages, beginning with a step pyramid of seven steps.  Before builders finished the fourth or fifth step, the king enlarged the project to a pyramid of eight steps which was completed in Snefru’s first fourteen years.  Previously it was suggested that Huni was responsible for this pyramid, based solely on the need to identify a large royal tomb for this king.  However, the ancient name of Meidum, Djed Snefru (‘Snefru Endures’), and the fact that Snefru’s name, unlike Huni’s, appears in texts at the site, all point to the former as the builder of Meidum from start to finish.

“In his fifteenth year on the throne Snefru and his court moved to the area around Dashur.  But then, during the last fifteen years of his reign, according to Rainer Stadelmann, he sent his workers back to Meidum to fill out the original step pyramid as a true pyramid.  The pyramid at Meidum thus represents the very beginning and end of Snefru’s pyramid-building program.

004 - 1 - 209 - 001 graph

“Construction techniques for the superstructure were initially in the old step pyramid style, with accretions of stone courses laid at an inward slope.  Better quality stone, laid in more regular courses, was used for the outer faces of the accretions, and fine white Tura-quality limestone for the exterior surfaces of the steps” (p. 97).

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

 

From Ancient Egypt by Lorna Oakes and Lucia Gahlin

“The Meidum Pyramid complex set the pattern for the rest of the Old Kingdom.  It consisted of the main pyramid and at least one subsidiary pyramid within an enclosure, together with a mortuary temple, to ensure the king’s immortality.  This was connected by a causeway to the valley, or lower, temple, situated at the edge of the floodplain.  The valley temple was linked to the River Nile by a canal, so that the funeral procession of the king could land here and the body be taken up the covered causeway for burial within the pyramid in relative privacy.  The Meidum Pyramid is also remarkable for the first use of corbelling to roof the burial chamber” (p. 48).

The mortuary chapel at Meidum with the two round-topped blank stele showing (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The mortuary chapel at Meidum with the two round-topped blank stele showing (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

 

From Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt by Alberto Siliotti

“Although Mariette was the first to penetrate the pyramid, in 1881, the first systematic excavations in the Meidum area were performed by Petrie between 1888 and 1891.  He found several structures, such as the processional ramp and the funerary temple, which later characterized the pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty.

Inside the small chapel at Meidum (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Inside the small chapel at Meidum (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

“The processional ramp, on an east-west axis, descends toward the cultivated plain, where it disappears, and the valley temple has never been found.  On the eastern side of the pyramid there is a chapel for offerings—an early form of the funerary temple, with a much simpler structure that includes two rooms leading to a tiny courtyard with two large stelae that flank a central altar.

The vertical shaft going up to the burial chamber at Meidum, the stairs are a modern addition (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The vertical shaft going up to the burial chamber at Meidum, the stairs are a modern addition (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

“On the north side of the pyramid, at a height of 18.5 m, is the entry to the 1.55 m high descending corridor, which leads to the burial chamber with its projecting [corbelled] vault similar to those pyramids at Dashur, and in which no trace of a sarcophagus has been found.  Meidum is the first place where the burial chamber is inserted into the body of the pyramid itself, and not in a shaft covered by a superstructure, as in the mastabas.  In addition, on the south side, in the space between the pyramid and the enclosure wall, a new structure appears:  the satellite pyramid” (p. 155).

 

divider bar 03

 

Causeway to the Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

Causeway to the Meidum Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

 

divider bar 03

 

 

Snefru’s Second Pyramid:  The Bent Pyramid

 

From The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries by Mark Lehner

“When Snefru abandoned his step pyramid at Meidum and moved north to Dashur, there was as yet no blueprint for a true pyramid.  To us, with a clear image of the shape of the classic pyramid, with a slope of 52 or 53 degrees, this may seem strange.  It was, however, a time of great experimentation, comparable to the period when Djoser’s architect Imhotep was building the Step Pyramid.

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

“The old step pyramids had faces that sloped about 72 to 78 degrees, certainly too steep for a true pyramid.  The is evidence within the core of the Bent Pyramid that is began as a far smaller pyramid with a slope of about 60 degrees.  But structural problems with subsidence soon set in.  Emergency measures took the form of an added girdle around the stump of the pyramid, forming a slope of just under 55 degrees.

“These early stages were constructed using the traditional method of laying the courses with the stones sloping inward.  Even at the reduced angle it appears that there were still major problems until, about half way up, the builders began to set the courses horizontally.  It had become clear that the inward-leaning courses, far from aiding stability, actually increased the stress on the pyramid.

Detail of the casing stones on the corner of the Bent Pyramid showing the precision with which they were cut and laid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Detail of the casing stones on the corner of the Bent Pyramid showing the precision with which they were cut and laid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Detail of the casing stones on the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

Detail of the casing stones on the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

“The Bent Pyramid was then continued at a much decreased slope of around 42 to 44 degrees, giving it a pronounced bend.  It may have been at this point, before the upper part was finished, that the decision was taken to begin a new pyramid at North Dashur.  Around the same time, perhaps the thirtieth year of Snefru’s reign according to Stadelmann, work also began on the satellite pyramid.

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

09b - 2 - 209 - 001 graph

“Other changes in construction methods are discernible.  Both core stones and casing stones are larger—the casing ones very much so—than in the Third Dynasty pyramids.  However, no great care was taken to lay the internal masonry neatly.  Substantial spaces between the stones are simply filled with limestone debris and even tafla in places.  Gypsum mortar was just beginning to be used more frequently, which, unlike the desert clay mortar, had to be specially prepared using fuel.  It was this combination of a lack of good mortar, carelessly laid blocks and, most importantly, the unstable desert surface, that caused the structural problems” (p. 102).

 

From Egyptian Pyramids and Mastaba Tombs by Philip Watson

“The Bent Pyramid is unique in having two substructures reached by separate entrances.  From the north face, the usual entrance position, a sloping corridor descends into bedrock ending in a corbelled chamber.  From the west face a second entrance, higher than the northern one, leads to another corbelled chamber higher than, but not directly above, the first.  This second entrance and chamber are built entirely within the superstructure of the pyramid.  Neither chamber contained any traces of a burial or sarcophagus.

Eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Offering table chapel at the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

Offering table chapel at the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

“The mortuary temple near the east face of the pyramid was very simple, comprising essentially of an open altar screened by brick walls.  Immediately beyond the enclosure wall on the south side is a subsidiary pyramid which is unlikely to be a queen’s burial as in later reigns.  Rather it probably retains the function of the Third Dynasty south tomb as a canopic burial or as a dummy for the jubilee festival.  In the latter respect it should be noted that a fragmentary stela was found nearby depicting the king in jubilee attire.  The causeway, which was unroofed, led to a valley temple which is now much destroyed although originally of monumental size and decorated with reliefs” (p. 26).

 

From Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt by Alberto Siliotti

“The pyramid had a satellite pyramid on the south side, while on the east side was a small funerary temple built of unfired brick with two large stelae that framed a table for offerings.

The satellite pyramid at the side of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The satellite pyramid at the side of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

The entrance to the Bent Pyramid as viewed from within (Photo by Ivrienen)

The entrance to the Bent Pyramid as viewed from within (Photo by Ivrienen)

“The processional ramp, about 200 m long, began at the northeast corner and ran northeast to the imposing rectangular-shaped valley temple, which measured 47 x 26 m and was built of Tura limestone, surrounded by a wall of unfired brick.  The building, which was excavated in the early 1950s by the Egyptian archaeologist Ahmed Fakry, included a vestibule in which there were two large rectangular stelae incised with the royal names, and a central court that ended in six chapels.

 

divider bar 03

 

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Bent Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

 

divider bar 03

 

 

Snefru’s Third Pyramid:  The Red Pyramid

 

From The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries by Mark Lehner

“In around his thirtieth year on the throne, Snefru abandoned the Bent Pyramid as his burial place, although, as at Meidum, he later completed it.  Instead, he began work on the North, or Red, Pyramid which was built at the gentler slope of 43 degrees 22’ from the beginning.  In many ways this was more elegant than the Bent Pyramid, where the builders obviously struggled and experimented with various solutions to the structural problems they were faced with.  The North Pyramid shows none of this—it is a neatly planned and executed construction, built with an efficient use of materials.

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

“Rainer Stadelmann has been working at North Dashur for over a decade.  In the course of his excavations of the debris at the base of the pyramid he found hundreds of pieces of fine white limestone casing.  Many of these have graffiti inscribed on their rear faces by work gangs.  One from a corner bears the hieratic (shorthand hieroglyphic) inscription mentioning ‘beginning to earth year fifteen’.  This refers to counting year fifteen, which, if biennial, is equivalent to the thirtieth year of Snefru’s reign.  Some thirty courses higher Stadelmann was able to place a casing stone dated only four years later—this gives us a very clear picture of the length of time it took to build such pyramids.

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

014b - 3 - 209 - 001 graph

“Remarkably, Stadelmann also found pieces of the pyramid’s capstone.  This was a simple culmination of the structure—a block with no carving or inscription and made of good quality limestone rather than any costlier material.  Its pieces were found near the base, rejected by those who were stripping the outer mantle of its finer limestone” (pp. 104-5).

The pyramidion of the Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

The pyramidion of the Red Pyramid (Photo by Richie O’Neill)

 

From Ancient Egypt by Lorna Oakes and Lucia Gahlin

“The Red Pyramid is perfectly constructed.  There is no sign of experimentation whatsoever, and it is generally recognized as the first true pyramid.  It was built of local limestone containing iron oxide, which gives it the reddish color from which it gets its name.  The outer casing of white Tura limestone has almost entirely disappeared, but the pyramid is otherwise intact.  Noteworthy features are the low angle of inclination (43 degrees) and the horizontal line of the core blocks.  In earlier pyramids, the blocks were laid at an angle in the belief that this method gave greater stability to the building.  As in the Bent Pyramid, the antechamber and burial chamber are roofed with very fine corbelled blocks.

Corbelling in the second chamber of the Red Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

Corbelling in the second chamber of the Red Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

“The mortuary temple was on the east side of the Red Pyramid and the ground plan has been reconstructed.  Enough remained to make possible a reconstruction on paper of the temple’s original appearance.  It seems to have been much larger than the mortuary temples of the Meidum and Bent Pyramids, and was a worthy forerunner of the even larger Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza.  Lying in the mortuary temple is the reconstructed pyramidion, or solid limestone capstone, that once topped the pyramid” (p. 49).

The pyramidion in the restored floor plan of the mortuary temple (Photo by Kurohito)

The pyramidion in the restored floor plan of the mortuary temple (Photo by Kurohito)

 

From Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt by Alberto Siliotti

“The entrance to the long corridor that leads to the inner chambers is located on the north side at a height of 28 meters from the ground.  After continuing for 60 m the corridor opens into an extraordinarily beautiful room with a projecting vaulted [corbelled] ceiling over 12 m high, constructed of eleven beds of limestone blocks, each of which projects a few centimeters out from the one below.  From here the corridor leads to a second room, whose center corresponds to the center of the pyramid.  It also has a projecting vaulted [corbelled] ceiling.  From the second room the corridor ascends for a few meters to reach a third room, with its main axis perpendicular to the preceding rooms.  The ceiling of this room, again vaulted and projecting, is 16 m high” (p. 143).

 

divider bar 03

 

018 - 3 - 209 - ro - 004

 

divider bar 03

 

 

Link and Online Reads

 

Ia Georgia provided a link to Charles Rigano’s article “New Perspectives on the Bent Pyramid” from The Ostracon.

Another share from Ia Georgia, “Preliminary Report of the General Survey at Dashur North, Spring 1996”.

Ia Georgia shared this article from Harvard Magazine on “Who Built the Pyramids”, a more general treatment of pyramids in general.

Passage from the second back to the first chamber in the Red Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

Passage from the second back to the first chamber in the Red Pyramid (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)

Vicky Metafora provided this link to a large album of photography Francesco Jose Neves collected on Facebook regarding Snefru’s pyramids, a true labor of love!

Keith Payne shared a link to the National Geographic Online article on the Pyramid of Snefru at Meidum, which leads to articles on the other two pyramids as well.

 

divider bar 03

 

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by H. W. Dunning)

The Meidum Pyramid (Photo by H. W. Dunning)

 

divider bar 03

 

 

From the New and On the Blogs

 

Daily News Egypt: “Restoration Centre at the Grand Egyptian Museum” (Lorraine Evans)

Daily News Egypt:  “Grand Egyptian Museum to open August 2015, says Minister” (Richie O’Neill)

History in the Headlines:  “Ancient Egyptian Pigments Gets a Second Chance to Shine” (Mark Lauria)

Ahram Online:  “Egypt won’t rent Pyramids to foreign firms, says antiquities ministry” (Lorraine Evans)

Close-up of the two round-topped stelae in situ at the eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Close-up of the two round-topped stelae in situ at the eastern chapel of the Bent Pyramid (Photo by Heidi Kontkanen)

Terrae Antiqvae:“Templo de Kalabsha. Aswan, Nubia, Egipto (video)” (José Luis Santos)

Pharon Magazine:  “Thebes During the First Millenium:  Conference Summary from October 2012, Pt. 1” (François Tonic)

Karnak Great Hypostyle Hall Project: “Interior Wall Scenes” (Celeste Albo)

 

divider bar 03

 

 

shemsutag

Copyright by Keith Payne, 2013.  All rights reserved

 

All photography by Richie O’Neill and Heidi Kontkanen are copyrighted by the respective creators, who retain all rights.  Used by permission.  All other photography and images are either in the public domain or are shared via Creative Commons.

Tags: , , , ,

This entry was posted on Tuesday, March 12th, 2013 at 10:25 pm and is filed under Em Hotep Digest. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

7 comments so far

Susan Leogrande Alt
avatar
 1 

A question Keith – although I can readily follow this article – and BRAVO for another exceptionally smooth flow of information – I have an observation/question about the bent pyramid. To me, it resembles the top of an obelisk. Is there no possible way this pyramid was intended to look this way and is not a result of flawed planning?

On that note – I follow along with Jean-Pierre very closely. He has made statements that illustrate the principals of 1) these things were a LOT of work which means that 2) these things were heavily planned. Thus, why would they not see the errors in the bent pyramid from the beginning? I am reading and understanding that there were layers and changes made in these earlier pyramids. But were these necessarily mistakes or part of a planning system we do not yet understand?

Additionally, what about internal ramps in these pyramids and sat photos of the delivery and construction ramps?

And, surrounding these pyramids, are there tombs that could or do contain images of the pyramids being built?

Jean-Pierre jumped into the Great Pyramid with gusto. I promote his work everywhere I go. Is there a place on this site or else where in which these other pyramids are discussed by Jean-Pierre utilizing the inner ramp theory?

I also note the three chambers he incorporates into the Great Pyramid (two of which are yet to be seen and I pray for they moment where he is able to prove beyond doubt that they are indeed there). These earlier “sacred three” chambers do indeed bring me to ask – has there been measurements to see how closely these chambers in the older pyramids match those in the Great Pyramid?

I would love to have scaled models of these pyramids to put together so I can more closely understand the size comparisons between them … Hmmmm … Congrats on your work Keith and all who contribute! Quality research with no “bonus alien” features! ROCK ON and let’s do tea!

March 13th, 2013 at 12:57 am
Fabio Zannier
avatar
 2 

Very good work, as usual!
One question: the Red pyramid has an angle of inclination of 43 degrees, looking at the two images of its pyramidion it seems to have a different inclination (in the second image with the reconstructed pyramidion I measured 54 degrees), how do you explain that?

March 13th, 2013 at 9:40 am
avatar
 3 

Hi Fabio :-)

Hmm.. I was not aware of the discrepancy, and do not have a quick answer for it, but I will put it out here in case others see it and can answer. That is strange, though. I will ask around.

–Keith

March 15th, 2013 at 1:38 pm
avatar
 4 

Hi Susi! :-)

Good questions, all of them. As for why they did not see the discrepancy with the Bent, keep in mind that this was a period of great experimentation. One explanation for the Bent is that they made the angle change because they thought it would collapse, and they did make other changes as well. For one thing, they stopped placing the blocks at an inward-leaning angle, which they originally thought would make the pyramid more stable. Inward-leaning blocks had been a staple since the Step Pyramid of Djoser. But when they began the section of the Bent with an angle change, they also began placing the blocks level rather than angled. Maybe both the angle change of the blocks and the pyramid itself were to address engineering problems they encountered as they were building. Or, another possibility is that they planned one or both changes from the very beginning?

As for building scale models, that is being done digitally, which I think is better than solid scale models because it can be easily changed, and you can move around inside a digital 3D model in ways you never could even the real thing, much less a scale model. These digital models are always being added to and improved upon, and I would look for more of the same, maybe very soon.. ;-)

–Keith

March 15th, 2013 at 1:47 pm
Susan Leogrande Alt
avatar
 5 

Hello Keith! I suppose unless we find written information with diagrams of how they were building the bent pyramid from the beginning, we’ll never know and can only guess at why it’s shaped that way. Deep sigh (until Jean-Pierre enters into an agreement with Captain Piccard to go back in time and returns to tell us! ).

I understand about the sloped stones and then going horizontal later on and even the period of experimentation. Would they have utilized models during construction or only drawings? Have there ever been construction plans, drawn out, found? I ask because you, my dear Chilly Billian, are in the “know” and thick as thieves with those that know these things. :)

Does the surrounding history back – “a period of experimentation”? By this I mean, was there enough of a workforce to have time to experiment? Did these experimentations take more time and is that reflected in the length of time it took to create this?

I’ve read that on the backing of certain stones, there are carvings that show what year the course of stone was laid down. That would show the speed at which the courses were laid -and this would, in turn, allow us to see if the experimental phases of building took longer. Those that followed the experimentation phases would then have a real blueprint to follow – and it follows that they would be built more quickly.

Have there been digs and research into the quarries for these monuments – looking for perhaps tombs with scenes of the building process? Etches of plans for the masons who were getting the supplies to follow?

Also, what other structures were undergoing experimentation? For me, knowing the context of building at the time helps. For instance, the mortar sometimes used to “fill in” places … could this and has this been documented and given tests for age? I’m going to hazard a guess that some pollen or chaff made it’s way into this wet mix and thus, it could be organically dated? That would also help date things and create a timeline of experimentation.

As for the 3d model – I simply want one for myself in stones that I could build block by block and experience the building process physically – not just visually. I DO enjoy the 3d imaging and LOVE how I can “walk through or around” the whole site and process.
Dassault systems is incredible with this! But to me, a tactile person, I would so enjoy the thrill of getting to place the stones myself and even though, in the end, I’d have one solid structure that I’d have to take apart to see the internal structure, it’s something I’d still love to do.

Oh and – what he said! RE: the angle of the pyramidion?

March 15th, 2013 at 8:00 pm
avatar
 6 

Just in front of Fayoum in the Nile Valley, south of Cairo, situated alone on the edge of the Western Desert above the lush fields Meidum is a tower-like structure some sixty-five feet high, which was once a pyramid which we believe was built by the 4th Dynasty King, SnefruEgyptologists. Some believe that the early stages of construction were made by Huni, his predecessor, and that Sneferu was only responsible for the completion of the pyramid. However, the name of Huni was not found in the pyramid, and various written documents suggest that the residential city and nearby belonged to the reign of Sneferu. In addition, many of the tombs nearby also belong to the family of Sneferu.In May ways Meidum is the most mysterious of all the great pyramids. When Snefru ascended the throne around 2575 BC, the complex of Djoser at Saqqara was the only major royal pyramid is completed. But Sneferu became the largest manufacturer of the pyramid of Egyptian history by completing not one, but three of them.The first inhabitants of this century called Meidum Pyramid el-Haram al-kaddab, which means “false pyramid” and because of its shape, it has attracted attention since the Middle Ages of travelers. The early fifteenth century, the famous Arab historian Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi thought it looked like a huge mountain tiered five years. However, it eroded so badly that when Frederik Ludwig Norden visited in the eighteenth century, the pyramid seemed to have only three levels. But it was not time and eroded, but human beings.

July 30th, 2013 at 5:37 am
Richie
avatar
 7 

Always great to re read the digests!

January 9th, 2014 at 9:25 am

Leave a reply

Name (*)
Mail (will not be published) (*)
URI
Comment