In this edition of the Khufu’s Western Cemetery series, we will introduce a chapter of mastabas with a brief biography of one of George Reisner’s valued colleagues, Tasmanian-born Egyptologist Arthur Cruttenden Mace.  Mace migrated from work with Flinders Petrie at Abydos to join Reisner at Giza during the Hearst Expedition, and in this episode we will learn a little of his history and work.  This is but a narrowed-down introduction, largely inspired and greatly informed by Gary Beuk‘s two-part series “Arthur Cruttenden Mace – Taking His Rightful Place,” Parts One and Two, hosted at Andie Byrnes and Kate Phizackerly‘s vast online journal, Egyptological.  This is simply intended to tickle your curiosity about the prolific Egyptologist, and you are really should also read Gary Beuk’s two-part biography.  The biographical portion is followed, as always, with a selection of largely interrelated mastabas from the HUMFA Expedition.  As always, along with Beuk’s contribution, this series is reliant upon, inspirited by, and pleasurably dedicated to the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives, currently in transition to Digital Giza.

 

Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part  7B: Arthur Mace and the Harvard/MFA Expedition

Detail of a photo of Arthur Mace, photo by Harry Burton, circa 1923.

Detail of a photo of Arthur Mace, photo by Harry Burton, circa 1923.

Arthur Cruttenden Mace was born July 17, 1874, in Glenorchy, Tasmania, the son of an Anglican priest (Rev. John Cruttenden Mace).  As part of the Oxford Movement, an effort to reinvigorate the values of the Church of England, the Mace’s were connected with Cardinal John Newman, an influential Oxford priest.  This allowed them to occupy the Upper Middle Class circles, although the lacked the financial resources that normally come with that status.  Arthur Mace earned a degree in teaching from Keble College, Oxford, in 1895.  Due to his family’s lack of funds, Mace put his degree to work by taking on a teaching position at Bath, but he was destined for greater accomplishments.  However, his teaching salary allowed his younger brother to attend with a partial tuition waiver (Beuk, Vol. 1)

William Matthew Flinders Petrie, Anonymous Archival Images, in "Amelia Peabody's Egypt" edited by Elizabeth Peters and Kristen Whitbread (NY:HarperCollins), p. 228.

William Matthew Flinders Petrie, Peters and Whitbread, p. 228.

Mace had the good fortune to have a distinguished relative – he was a distant cousin of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, and although how the connection was made remains uncertain, in 1897 Mace went to work with Petrie at Dendera, where he was trained in Egyptology with one of the true masters (Beuk, Vol. 1). Mace apparently made a good impression, as Petrie allowed him to perform much of the work while Petrie compiled his photographic catalogue of the site and findings.  From 1899 to 1901 (Dunn gives the dates as 1899 to 1902), Mace moved on to Abydos where, along with Charles Currelly, he was among the first Egyptologists to work on Ahmose’s Pyramid complex.  They excavated the mortuary temple, and did some preliminary work surveying the pyramid itself, but their work was incomplete and it would be left to others to finish surveying the last royal pyramid (Dunn).

Tomb and Temple Plans from Randall-Maciver and Mace's "El Amrah and Abydos," showing a temple of Ahmose (Plate XXIV).

Tomb and Temple Plans from Randall-Maciver and Mace’s “El Amrah and Abydos,” showing a temple of Ahmose (Plate XXIV).

In 1902, Mace cleared the way, quite literally, for George Reisner to begin his work in the Western Cemetery.  As part of Reisner’s Hearst Expedition, Mace cleared sand and debris away from some of the minor mastabas in Cemeteries G 1000 – G 1400.  Mace was trying to determine the western edge of Western Field.  In December, 1903, Reisner joined Mace at Giza and began clearing some of Cemetery G 2000, and trying to determine how to best relocate the displaced sand and stone.  Although the Hearst Expedition would soon come to an end, Reisner’s team was almost immediately picked up by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, and the golden years of the Western Cemetery were on (Reisner, 1942).

Cemetery G 2000: photo by Lythgoe of preliminary clearing of southern chapel of G 2000 (aka Lepsius 23), looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A460_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Cemetery G 2000: photo by Lythgoe of preliminary clearing of southern chapel of G 2000 (aka Lepsius 23), looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A460_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Albert Morton Lythgoe, from the The Emma B. Andrews Diary Project (linked below in Works Cited)

Albert Morton Lythgoe, from the The Emma B. Andrews Diary Project (linked below in Sources)

Arthur Mace continued to work the Western Cemetery at Giza with George Reisner, as well as at Naga ed-Der, an important site due to cemeteries dating from the Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom Period.  Additionally, Reisner would discover First Intermediate Period tombs at Naga ed-Der.  However, in 1906, Mace and Lythgoe would be drawn away from the site when the Metropolitan Museum of New York recruited them to work at el-Lisht on the complex of Amenemhet I, founder of the Twelfth Dynasty.  In “Contested Antiquity,” Donald Reid states that the Met “outbid Reisner and the MFA, luring [Albert] Lythgoe and Briton Arthur Mace away with higher salaries” (p. 28).  Regardless of the reasons, Mace and Lythgoe went on to  help explore the Pyramid of Amenemhet, which, unfortunately, had been cleaned out by tomb robbers centuries before.  Also while at el-Lisht, Mace and Lythgoe completed the excavation of the Pyramid of Sesostris I, which had previously been explored by Joseph Étienne Gautier and Gustave Jéquier in 1894 (David, p. 65).

Pyramid of Senusret [Sesostris] I at el-Lisht, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, photo by Jon Bodsworth, copyright free.

Pyramid of Senusret [Sesostris] I at el-Lisht, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, photo by Jon Bodsworth, copyright free.

Although we Old Kingdom aficionados prefer to remember Arthur Mace in his association with Reisner and the Western Cemetery, to the degree that his name is known outside Egyptological circles, it is in connection with a certain golden-masked teen named Tutankhamun.  Mace was a part of Howard Carter’s team that excavated KV 62 in 1922.  In fact, it was Carter and Mace who removed the blocks separating Tutankhamun’s antechamber from his burial chamber, passing them along a line of workers, who stacked them outside the tomb (Tyldesley, pp. 198-200).  As an interesting aside, in 1923, Mace was the first person to put forth the “murder theory” – the proposition that Tutankhamun had been murdered by his successor, Ay (Tyldesley, p. 209).  Mace and Carter would collaborate on an account of the famous discovery in  “The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amun,” in 1924 (David, p.91)

Arthur Mace (right) with Howard Carter (left) at the tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62), 1923, photo from Harry Burton’s “Tutankhamun Tomb Photographs,” published in 1923, source: German Wikipedia.

Arthur Mace (right) with Howard Carter (left) at the tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62), 1923, photo from Harry Burton’s “Tutankhamun Tomb Photographs,” published in 1923, source: German Wikipedia.

As with all of the Western Cemetery articles, this too is humbly dedicated to the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston’s “Giza Archives Project,” in the processed of being transitioned to Digital Giza, without which this series would be impossible.  It is my hope that the reader will be encouraged by this article to visit the Giza Archives, which is both vast and delightful.  If you have enjoyed this brief introduction to Arthur Mace, and would like to learn more, you would be hard-pressed to find a better online source than Gary Beuk’s  “Arthur Cruttenden Mace – Taking His Rightful Place,” Parts I and II, published on the site “Egypotological,” both of which are linked in the Introduction as well as the Sources section at the bottom of the article.  I don’t actually cite Part 2, but it was valuable and inspiring to this small intro to an important Egyptologist, and besides, if you have read this far, you will find Beuk’s writing is definitely for you.  Now, on to the tombs… (Sources will be found at the end of the article).

Cemetery en Echelon, North Part with Mastabas G 2300 and G 2400

Reisner Harvard-Boston Expedition, (Porter and Moss, pp. 83-95, with much additional info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 2352 Hagy – Royal Acquaintance, Wab-priest, Chief of the Chapel of Isesi, Priest of the Two Horuses of Gold (Khufu), ) Overseer of the Fields of Khufu, Overseer of the Milk Herd of the Pyramid of Khufu, Overseer of Cattle.  Possible wife Iytjentet (Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore, Priestess of Neith North of Her Wall).  Also attested, relations, if any, not known:  Nikahep ( …of the Great Estate, Priest of Khufu Presiding Over the Pyramid of Khufu, Royal Acquaintance), and Setju (Craftsman of the Royal Scribes, Craftsman of Mehit, Priest of Seshat, Great one of the Tens of Upper Egypt) from slab stela, probably not originally in G 2352.  

Stone-built mastaba, end of Fifth Dynasty or later.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2352, northern northern false door inscribed for Hagy, looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A5779_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2352, northern northern false door inscribed for Hagy, looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A5779_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2352 Z, burial (skeleton), pottery jar in situ. Photo ID HUMFA_C3151_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2352 Z, burial (skeleton), pottery jar in situ. Photo ID HUMFA_C3151_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2366 Nimesti – Royal Acquaintance, Steward, Priest, Royal Wab-Priest, Under-Supervisor of Ka-priests, Overseer of Linen, Director of the Followers.  Wife Kamerites (Priestess of Hathor, Priestess of Neith).  Sons Irenakhet (Juridical Scribe), and Neferkhent (Overseer of Linen).  

Stone-built mastaba, probably Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2366 (abutting eastern face of G 2360), displaced lintel inscribed for Sekhemka resting across southern wall (originally from northern niche of G 2360), false door inscribed for Nimesti in situ in eastern face of G 2366, looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_C3010_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2366 (abutting eastern face of G 2360), displaced lintel inscribed for Sekhemka resting across southern wall (originally from northern niche of G 2360), false door inscribed for Nimesti in situ in eastern face of G 2366, looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_C3010_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2366 (abutting eastern face of G 2360), false door inscribed for Nimesti (wife Kamerites and two sons Neferkhent and Irenakhet also appear on false door), looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A5778_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2366 (abutting eastern face of G 2360), false door inscribed for Nimesti (wife Kamerites and two sons Neferkhent and Irenakhet also appear on false door), looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A5778_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2370 Senedjemib Inti – Controller of all Scribes, Royal Chamberlain, Overseer of the Two Granaries, Overseer of the Armory, Royal Architect in the Two Houses, Overseer of the Two Treasuries, Overseer of the Two Chambers of Royal Regalia, Overseer of Every Department of the Residence, Overseer of the Houses of the Royal Children, Overseer of Royal Regalia, Overseer of the Six Great Law-Courts, Overseer of All that is Judged, Hereditary Prince, Count, Chief Justice and Vizier, Overseer of all Royal Works, Overseer of Royal Document Scribes, Secretary of Every Royal Decree, Lector-Priest, Sole Companion.  Sons Fetekta (Royal Document Scribe in the Presence), Niankhmin (Lector-Priest, Inspector of Ka-priests), and Senedjemib Mehi (see G 2378, below).

Other titled persons attested:  Ankhemtjenenet(?) (Overseer of Scribes, Inspector of Funerary Priests), H[…] (Inspector of Funerary Priests), Hemakhet (Juridical Scribe, Inspector of \Ka-priests, Judge, Overseer of Scribes), Iamu (Overseer of Scribes, Under-Supervisor of Funerary Priests), Ihy (Ka-priest), Ihy (Different than previous, Director of the Dining Hall), Ihy (Different than previous, Overseer of Field-Scribes, Funerary Priest), Iry (Scribe of the Library of the God), Isesibaf Lector-priest), Kaemtjenenet (Scribe of the Library of the God, Funerary Priest), Khnumenti (Owner of G 2374, see that tomb below for details), Mam(?) (Controller of Necklace-Stringers, Under-Supervisor of Funerary Priests), Mery-ib (Noble of the King, Companion of the House), Nedjem ([…srw] … of officials), Neferherenptah (Under-Supervisor of Funerary Priests), Neferseshemseshat (Juridical Overseer of scribes), Neken (Inspector of Funerary Priests), Niankhinpu (Inspector of Funerary Priests), Qar (Brother of his Funerary Estate, Ka-priest), Senedjem (Royal Document Scribe in the Presence), Senedjemib (could be Senedjemib Inti’s eldest son, Senedjemib Mehi, owner of G 2378), Tjefi (Wife of Senedjemib Inti, see G 2378), Tjesnesptah (Juridical Elder of the court), Tjesu (Brother of his Funerary Estate, Ka-priest), and Werti (Funerary Priest).  Attested but without titles: Iymery, Nebre, and Niptah.  

Stone-built mastaba, late in the Fifth Dynasty.  Originally excavated by Karl Lepsius (Tomb LG 27) and later by George Reisner.

G 2370, Senedjemib Inti, southwestern corner, looking north from photographic tower. Photo ID HUMFA_A713_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2370, Senedjemib Inti, southwestern corner, looking north from photographic tower. Photo ID HUMFA_A713_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2370, Senedjemib Inti, chapel, room IV (on published plan), offering room, southwest corner, relief on southern wall, false door on western wall, looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A6345_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2370, Senedjemib Inti, chapel, room IV (on published plan), offering room, southwest corner, relief on southern wall, false door on western wall, looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A6345_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2374 Khnumenti – Sole Companion, Staff of the Commoners, Iun-kenmut Priest, Overseer of the Two Wabets, Overseer of the Two Houses of Gold, Royal Secretary, Overseer of the Two Granaries, Beloved of his Lord in his Two Lands, He Who is in the Heart of the King in All His Works, Overseer of the Two Treasuries, Hereditary Prince, Count, Chief Justice and Vizier, Overseer of All Royal Works, Royal Architect in the Two Houses, Royal Chamberlain, Secretary of Every Royal Decree, Overseer of Royal Document Scribes, Overseer of the Six Great Law-courts, Inspector of Priests of the Pyramid of Teti.  Ka-priests attested: Kai(?), Menihy, and Senedjem.  

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2374, originally - block of relief (part of carrying chair scene) from outside corner (boat on long side) Khnumenti´s chapel, room I (on published plan), eastern wall. Photo ID HUMFA_B7518_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2374, originally – block of relief (part of carrying chair scene) from outside corner (boat on long side) Khnumenti´s chapel, room I (on published plan), eastern wall. Photo ID HUMFA_B7518_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2374, Khnumenti, chapel, room III (on published plan), offering room, western wall, false door of [GLYPHS] Khnumenti, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A1072_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2374, Khnumenti, chapel, room III (on published plan), offering room, western wall, false door of [GLYPHS] Khnumenti, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A1072_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375 Akhetmehu – Judge, Elder of the Court, Mouth of Nekhen, Judge and Overlord of the Words of the Words of Secret Judgements of the Great Court, Secretary of Judgments, Priest of Maat, Master of Reversion-Offerings.  Wife Hunetka (Royal Acquaintance, Beloved of the God, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the- Sycamore).  Sons Ankhirptah (Mouth of Nekhen, Juridical Scribe, Judge, Elder of the Court – see also G 2375a, below) and Seshemnefer (Juridical Scribe).  Also attested, Pan (see G 2422, below).  

Stone-built mastaba, late  Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2375, Akhetmehu, displaced inscribed architrave (photographed north of G 2375, over G 2417). Photo ID HUMFA_A8393_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375, Akhetmehu, displaced inscribed architrave (photographed north of G 2375, over G 2417). Photo ID HUMFA_A8393_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375, Akhetmehu, chapel, cleared, false door inscribed for Akhetmehu in western wall of recess, G 2375a, Ankhirptah, secondary chapel abutting eastern face of G 2375, false door inscribed for Ankhirptah (see G 2375a, below), looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A8396_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375, Akhetmehu, chapel, cleared, false door inscribed for Akhetmehu in western wall of recess, G 2375a, Ankhirptah, secondary chapel abutting eastern face of G 2375, false door inscribed for Ankhirptah (see G 2375a, below), looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_A8396_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2375a Ankhirptah – Mouth of Nekhen, Juridical Scribe, Judge, Elder of the Court.  Father Akhetmehu, mother Hunetka (See G 2375, above).

Stone-built mastaba, late  Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2375a, Ankhirptah, secondary chapel abutting eastern face of G 2375, western wall, false door inscribed for Ankhirptah, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A5799_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375a, Ankhirptah, secondary chapel abutting eastern face of G 2375, western wall, false door inscribed for Ankhirptah, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A5799_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375 A, burial chamber, hole in lid over rock-cut pit-coffin, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7302_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2375 A, burial chamber, hole in lid over rock-cut pit-coffin, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7302_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2378 Senedjemib Mehi – Hereditary Prince, True Count, Overseer of all Royal Works, Secretary of Every Royal Decree, He Who is in the Heart of the King in all His Places, Revered Before the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Unis, Sole Companion, Chief Justice and Vizier, Overseer of Royal Document Scribes, Overseer of all Royal Regalia, Royal Chamberlain, Royal Architect in the Two Houses, Overseer of the Two Granaries, Overseer of the Two Armories, Overseer of the Two Wabets, Overseer of the Two Houses of Gold, Overseer of Royal Linen, Revered before Isesi.  Father Senedjemib Inti (see G 2370, above).  Wife Khentkaus (King’s Daughter of his Body, Priestess of Hathor). Sons Mehi and Senedjemib (see G 2384, below).

Also attested: Fefi (Overseer of…?), Hemakhet (see G 2370, above), Henti (titles not known, attested in fragmentary false door found north of G 2378), Khnumshepses (Judge), Khufuankh (Butcher’s Assistant), Ptahshepses (Elder of the House), Qar (Ka-priest), and Senedjemib (Administrator of the Granary).  

Stone-built mastaba, Fifth Dynasty, reign of Unis.  Excavated by Karl Lepsius (Tomb LG 26) and later by George Reisner.

G 2378 A, burial chamber, sarcophagus, looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A7284_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2378 A, burial chamber, sarcophagus, looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A7284_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2378, Senedjemib Mehi, chapel, room II (on published plan), antechamber, southern wall, east of entrance (western part), relief (registers of musicians, scribes [fifth register, first figure in row identified as Hemakhet; sixth register, first figure in row identified as Ptahshepses], and cattle procession), looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A6364P_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2378, Senedjemib Mehi, chapel, room II (on published plan), antechamber, southern wall, east of entrance (western part), relief (registers of musicians, scribes [fifth register, first figure in row identified as Hemakhet; sixth register, first figure in row identified as Ptahshepses], and cattle procession), looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_A6364P_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2381 – Merptahankh-Meryre Nekhebu – Overseer of Works, Overseer of all Royal Works, Overseer of Royal Commissions of the pyramid of Pepi I, Overseer of Palace Attendants of the Pyramid of Pepi I, Overseer of Builders, Assistant of (the god) Duau, Regulator of a Phyle, Royal Carpenter, Royal Architect, Royal Architect in the Two Houses, Secretary of the Two Wabets, Director of Every Kilt, Lector-priest, Chief Lector-priest, Royal Chamberlain, Sem-priest, Sole Companion, Elder of the Snwt-house, Inspector of Builders, Noble of the King, Ordinary Builder, Builder in the Two houses, Workman.  Father possibly Khnumenti (Porter and Moss, p. 90; see also G 2374, above). Wife Hatkau (Royal Acquaintance).  Sons Merptahankh-Meryre Ptahshepses (Count, Sem-priest, Director of Every Kilt, Chief Lector-priest, Gracious of Arm, Sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, Overseer of All Royal Works, Sole Companion, Royal Architect in the Two Houses, Overseer of the Two Wabets – Tomb G 2386, not featured in this article), Sabuptah Ibebi (Overseer of the Fowling Pond of the Two Houses, Sem-priest, Director of Every Kilt, Sole Companion, Lector-priest, Sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, Count, Overseer of the pyramid town of…, Royal Chamberlain, Royal Architect in the Two Houses  – possible co-owner of G 2381, and/or G 2386) and Tjemat (Sole Companion, Royal Carpenter).  Brother Merptahankh-Pepi (Senior Lector-priest).  Also attested, Niunis (Elder of the house).  

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2381 (originally), fragment of inscription (longer autobiographical inscription of Nekhebu) found in G 2382 (originally thought to be a tomb, but now known to be a jumbled deposit of limestone blocks from other nearby tombs), currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 44608. Photo ID HUMFA_C4499_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2381 (originally), fragment of inscription (longer autobiographical inscription of Nekhebu) found in G 2382 (originally thought to be a tomb, but now known to be a jumbled deposit of limestone blocks from other nearby tombs), currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 44608. Photo ID HUMFA_C4499_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2381 A, Impy, burial chamber, interior of wood coffin (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.3085), burial (skeleton), alabaster headrest (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.2925), mirror (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.3055), alabaster vessels (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.2926, and MFA 13.2927), and flat mud cakes and wood stick in situ, looking north. Photo ID HUMFA_C3271_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2381 A, Impy, burial chamber, interior of wood coffin (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.3085), burial (skeleton), alabaster headrest (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.2925), mirror (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.3055), alabaster vessels (currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 13.2926, and MFA 13.2927), and flat mud cakes and wood stick in situ, looking north. Photo ID HUMFA_C3271_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2384 Senedjemib (based on block relief believed to be from the facade of this tomb) – Royal Chamberlain, Royal Architect in the Two Houses.  Father Senedjemib Mehi, mother Khentkaus (see G 2378, above).  

Rubble-built mastaba, likely Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2384 (originally - found displaced in court), block of sunk relief with vertical inscription (mentioning name Senedjemib [name only partially preserved]). Photo ID HUMFA_B7171_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2384 (originally – found displaced in court), block of sunk relief with vertical inscription (mentioning name Senedjemib [name only partially preserved]). Photo ID HUMFA_B7171_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Senedjemib Complex court, area of G 2384 (foreground, east of court), facade of G 2378 (north of court) with G 2383 (chapel only, abutting western end of G 2378 facade, background right), looking west to facade of G 2370 and G 2374. Photo ID HUMFA_B1334_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Senedjemib Complex court, area of G 2384 (foreground, east of court), facade of G 2378 (north of court) with G 2383 (chapel only, abutting western end of G 2378 facade, background right), looking west to facade of G 2370 and G 2374. Photo ID HUMFA_B1334_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2391  Irenakhet Iri – Ka-priest, Overseer of the Department of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Seward.  Wife Kaesites (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of- the-Sycamore).  Sons Khnumenti (ka-priest), Mehi (Overseer of Commissions of Ka-priests, Noble of the King, Companion of the House), and possible son, Senedjemib (Under-Supervisor of the Great House, Ka-priest).  Daughters Khuit, Nesif, and Sheshit.  Son of Mehi, grandson of Irenakhet Iri, Neferi (Overseer of Commissions of Ka-priests, Under-Supervisor of the Great House, Ka-priest, Under-Supervisor of Palace Attendants of the Great House).  Son of Neferi, grandson of Mehi, Great Grandson of  Irenakhet Iri, Neferkhenet.  Daughters of Neferi, Nebet and Nikhuitsekhmet.  Granddaughter of Mehi, Great granddaughters of  Irenakhet Iri  Granddaughter Hatkau (Daughter of Mehi, sister of Neferi).  Great grandson Inti, grandson of Mehi, son of Neferi. Also attested:  Khai (director of the dining hall) from false door misplaced in G 2391 – relation, if any, not known, Bebi (royal acquaintance), and Intef (based on fragment of an offering stone inscribed for him recovered from G 2391 chamber B).  

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2391, chapel, three false doors of (from south to north) Neferi, Irenakhet, and Kaesites, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_B8533_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2391, chapel, three false doors of (from south to north) Neferi, Irenakhet, and Kaesites, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_B8533_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of limestone lintel from debris in front of G 2391, currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. No. MFA 13.4337. Photo ID HUMFA_B1347B_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of limestone lintel from debris in front of G 2391, currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. No. MFA 13.4337. Photo ID HUMFA_B1347B_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2422 Pan – Secretary of His Lord, Palace Attendant, Inspector of Palace Attendants of the Great House.  Also attested, Intef, from inscribed fragmented lintel recovered from G 2422  (Major-Domo of the Great House, Secretary of the King).

Stone-built mastaba, late Fifth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2422, chapel, western wall, lower part of false door inscribed for [GLYPHS] Pan in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C13893_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2422, chapel, western wall, lower part of false door inscribed for [GLYPHS] Pan in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C13893_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2422 C, limestone servant statue (woman grinding grain) from quarter view proper right, currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 67572. Photo ID HUMFA_C13869_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2422 C, limestone servant statue (woman grinding grain) from quarter view proper right, currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 67572. Photo ID HUMFA_C13869_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2430 Nihetepptah (aka Peni) –  Overseer of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Secretary, Overseer of the Two Weaving Shops of the Great House, Controller of the Palace, Overseer of the Arsenal, Friend of the House, Judge and Administrator of the Great House, Secretary of the King in all His Places, Overseer of the Noble Places of the Great House.  Wife Khamerernebty (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore).  Daughters Henutsen and Hep,  son Kaemtjenenet (Palace Attendant of the Great House) and possible son, Ankhmaka ([jmj-r] Overseer).  From chapal relief, Ii[…] (Scribe of the Council), […]ni ([… n Snwt] … of the Granary), Irenre (Overseer of Physicians(?) and of Ka-priests of the gs-dpt), Iynefret, and Tj[…]i (Grain-Measurer of the Funerary Estate).  

Stone-built mastaba, early Sixth Dynasty.  Excavated by Karl Lepsius (Tomb LG 25) and later by George Reisner.

G 2430, Nihetepptah, chapel, two pillars and false door inscribed for Nihetepptah, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7720_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2430, Nihetepptah, chapel, two pillars and false door inscribed for Nihetepptah, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7720_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2430, Nihetepptah, chapel, northern pillar (eastern face), relief (lower part, standing figures of Nihetepptah and Ankhmaka), looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7724_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2430, Nihetepptah, chapel, northern pillar (eastern face), relief (lower part, standing figures of Nihetepptah and Ankhmaka), looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7724_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Previous articles in this series:

Sources

 

Beuk, Gary.  “Arthur Cruttenden Mace – Taking His Rightful Place, Part 1.”  Egyptological,  05 May 2012.  Web.  Online: http://egyptological.com/2012/05/31/arthur-cruttenden-mace-taking-his-rightful-place-8940

 

— “Arthur Cruttenden Mace – Taking His Rightful Place, Part 2.”  Egyptological,  14 August 2012.  Web.  Online: http://egyptological.com/2012/08/14/arthur-cruttenden-mace-taking-his-rightful-place-part-2-9893

 

David, Rosalie. “Discovering ancient Egypt.” New York: Facts on File, 1993. Print.

 

Dunn, Jimmy.  “Ahmose Pyramid at Abydos.”  Tour Egypt,  N.d.  Web.  Online:  http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ahmosep.htm

 

Emma B. Andrews Project.  “Lythgoe, Albert Morton.”  Photo.  N.d.  Web.  Online: http://www.emmabandrews.org/project/items/show/9

 

O’Conner, David.  “Abydos:  Egypt’s First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris.”  Photo. And description.  London:Thames and Hudson, 2009.

 

Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L. B. Moss.  “Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr).”  Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1974.  Web.  Online:  http://www.gizapyramids.org/view/publisheddocs/asitem/search@/0?t:state:flow=c2f6eca8-ccfa-4f67-8b6c-1a8a5539c2f8

 

Randall-Maciver, D and Arthur Mace.  “El Amrah and Abydos.”  London:The Egypt Exploration Fund. 1902.  Online: https://archive.org/stream/elamrahandabydo00macgoog#page/n0/mode/2up

 

Reid, Donald Malcolm.  “Contesting Antiquity in Egypt: Archaeologies, Museums, and the Struggle for Identities from World War I to Nasser.”  Cairo: American University Press in Cairo, 2015.  Print.

 

Reisner, George.  “A History of the Giza Necropolis III, Unpublished 1942 Manuscript, [Chapter 17: Analytic Overview of] Cemetery G 1000-1600 [Part] 1:  The Position and Topography of the Cemeteries, Page [Part} I 002.  Web.  Online:  http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/unpubdocs/47655/intro/

 

Tyldesley, Joyce.  “Egypt:  How a Lost Civilization was Rediscovered.”  Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.  Print.

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