We have examined how George Reisner developed his concept of the nucleus cemeteries, and how these grew into what we now call the Western Field, or, Western Necropolis. We have examined how the field was divided into three tracts so that concessions could be assigned to international missions. We will now begin looking at an assortment of the tombs themselves, beginning with George Reisner and the Hearst Expedition.

Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part 4: The Hearst Expedition

Young George Reisner, source Anonymous Archival Images, as reproduced in Peters and Whitebread, p. 229, bottom left.

George Reisner graduated from Harvard University in 1889, and earned his Ph. D. in 1893. His studies in Assyriology and Egyptology led him to a position at the Royal Museum of Berlin as an assistant in the Egyptology section from 1895-1896 (Bulletin, p. 34) Reisner returned to Harvard University where he served as an instructor from 1896 to 1897. Like so many others connected to the Western Field, Reisner was sent to University in Göttingené to study under Adolf Erman (“Reisner, George Andrew). He was later selected to become a member of the International Committee on the Catalog of Khedival Museum at Cairo, and with the support of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, he was elevated to the position of being in charge of Egyptology on site, and he became the Hearst lecturer on Egyptology at the University of California (Bulletin, p. 34). When the Egyptian governorate decided to allow excavations take place in the Western Cemetery of Khufu, Reisner acquired the American concession for the Hearst Expedition, and his relationship with the Western Necropolis was off and running (Bulletin, p. 34).

Phoebe Hearst, via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.

With the patronage of the rather well-off Hearst family filling his sails, Reisner navigated his way through Old Kingdom Egypt like Magellan. Reisner’s brilliance was noted early on, with his appointments to the Royal Museum of Berlin, the Khedival Museum at Cairo, and Harvard University. Mrs. Hearst knew a prodigy when she saw one, and with the financial support of the Hearsts and the academic support of Harvard University and the University of California, Reisner knew that, for the most part, he could write his own ticket. His work was originally centered on Qift, also known as Gebtu, the principal city of the Nome of Harawi, in Upper Egypt. Qift was an important site, and the location of one of the major cemeteries of the Old Kingdom, but it was certainly not in the league that was Khufu’s Western Cemetery (“Major Projects”).

Arthur Mace, photo by Harry Burton, source German Wikipedia, public domain

 

In 1903, Reisner’s colleague, Arthur Mace was dispatched to work in the Western Cemetery. He was joined by Reisner, who took control of the work, and thus the Western Cemetery became the final leg of the Hearst Expedition (Reisner, 1908, p. VI-VII). The Hearst family ended their funding in 1904, with George Reisner having contributed about 17,000 cataloged artifacts to the Phoebe Hearst Museum (“Collections: Ancient Egypt”). Fortunately Reisner was still associated with both Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, who, beginning in 1905, allowed Reisner to continue his work in the Western Field (“Reisner, George R.”). We will return to Reisner’s work with the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Expedition a little later. It is quite vast and will require a number of articles to cover properly. With the next edition we will resume with the Turin Expedition, followed by the Sieglin Expedition, THEN we will revisit Dr. Reisner.

NOTE: Most of the information, and most of the photos in the Western Cemetery of Khufu series come from the Digital Giza website, Harvard University’s home for their (and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston’s) Giza Archive. This is at best a humble introduction and tribute to that work, and will hopefully encourage you to visit the site for your own enjoyment and edification. You can navigate to Digital Giza from http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/ So, on to the tombs!

 

Reisner Hearst Expedition Tombs – This list is by no means complete, but is intended to be representative. For a full treatment of the Western Cemetery, visit Digital Giza, referenced above.

Cemetery G 1000, Reisner Hearst Expedition (Porter and Moss, pp. 52-55), missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1020 Mes-sa – (no titles). Wife Renpetnefret. Hetepi (Royal Acquaintance) is possibly a son. Lintel of Nefer (Overseer of Boatmen(?) of the Great Bark, Elder of the Brothers of the Funerary Estate (?), Overseer of Barbers) reused in structure. Stone-built mastaba. Late Fourth or first half of Fifth Dynasty.

G 1020, Serdab, interior cleared, statues (seated pair statue = Hearst 6-19760, standing statue = Hearst 6-19826) in situ, looking south. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A10844_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

G 1029 Sekhemka – Priest of Re in the Sun Temple of Niuserre, Overseer of Departments of Tenants of the Great House, Priest of Khufu. Son Pehenptah I (Royal Wab-priest, Priest of Khufu). Stone-built mastaba. Fifth or Sixth Dynasties.

G 1029 – Sekhemka, chapel, western wall, lintel over southern false door inscribed for Sekhemka (central part, inscription), looking west. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A5858_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

G 1032 Hetepib – Inspector of Craftsmen of the Wabet, Overseer of the Ten. Wife Setept, son Iunkaf (Overseer the Ten Craftsmen of the Wabet). Double statue of deceased and wife, standing, and offering table presented by son, Iunkaf. Double statue of Iunkaf also recovered. Sixth Dynasty.

G 1032/G 1022 – Limestone offering basin inscribed for Hetepib, dedicated by his son Inkaf, found displaced in G 1032, attributed to G 1022 (top, quarter view): Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19761. Photo ID number: HUMFA_C13289-01_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

G 1036 Seneb – Judge and Royal Scribe, Ka-priest, Royal Acquaintance. Scribe statue of the deceased. Fifth or Sixth Dynasties.

G 1036 – Two limestone statues (quarter view proper left): seated scribe statue from G 1036, serdab: Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19765; standing statue of Petpennisut from G 1105, serdab in niche: Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 37719. Photo ID number: HUMFA_B13033-01_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1047 Niankhmin- Priest of Pyramids of Menkauhor and Niuserre, Overseer of New Settlements. Stone-built mastaba. Sixth Dynasty.

G 1047 – Cemetery G 1000, strip I: middle (north), including G 1047 (foreground), G 1044, G 1043, and G 1045+1046 (to west), looking west from G 2000 (= Lepsius 23). Photo ID number: HUMFA_A10869_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

 

Cemetery G 1100, Reisner Hearst Expedition (Porter and Moss, pp. 55-6, missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1104 Sames – Royal Acquaintance, Inspector of the Boat. Limestone statue discovered inscribed “Sames,” thought to be a variation of “Messa.” Brick-built mastaba. Late Fifth Dynasty.

G 1104 – Two limestone statues (front): seated statue of Sames from G 1104, serdab: Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 37717; standing statue of Petpennisut from G 1105, serdab in niche: Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 37719. Photo ID number: HUMFA_C11870_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1151 Neferqed – Royal Acquaintance of the Great House, Inspector of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Priest of Khufu, Royal Wab-priest, Secretary, Priest of Re in the Sun-Temple of Niuserre, titles listed on false door. Wife Hemtre (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore, Priestess of (Neith) Opener-of-the-Ways). Stone-built Mastaba. End of Fifth Dynasty or later.

G 1151, Neferqed, chapel, south wall, west end, relief (Neferqed seated at offering table), looking south. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A6458_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1171 Kaemtjenenet – King’s Wab-priest. Name taken from false door and east door jamb, with unidentified wife. Stone-built mastaba. Fifth or Sixth Dynasties.

G 1171 – Kaemtjenenet, chapel, western wall, upper lintel and false doors (larger, northern false door, inscribed for Kaemtjenenet), looking W. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A6045_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

Cemetery G 1200, Reisner Hearst Expedition (Porter and Moss, pp. 56-61, some missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1201 Wepemnefret – King’s son, Priest of Heqet, Heka-priest of Mehit, Craftsman of the King’s Scribes, and Great one of the Tens of Upper Egypt, Khet-priest of Ha, King’s Son. Stone-built mastaba, Fourth Dynasty, reign of Khufu.

G 1201 – Painted limestone slab stela of Wepemnefret from G 1201: Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19825. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A11568_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1204 Akhethetep – Royal Acquaintance, Inspector of Priests of the pyramid of Khufu, Chief of the Estate, Great One of the Tens of Upper Egypt, Preeminent of Place, Commander of the Masters of Reversion-offerings. Stone-built mastaba. Wife Khenti, identified from south inner jamb of false door. Other wife Seshseshet. Akhethetep and woman identified as Tehu (probably daughter with Seshseshet) at the bottom of the northern inner jamb. Son Khufuankh, depicted as young boy. Attested (relation unknown), Khufudjedef. Stone-built mastaba. Middle Fifth Dynasty or later.

G 1204 – Akhethetep, chapel, western wall, false door inscribed for Akhethetep, looking west. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A6020_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1206 Ikhetneb – Inspector of Wab-priests. Possibly father of Senenu (Director of Members of Phyle, Priest of Khufu) and grandfather of Akhethetep (Inspector of Boats, Director of a Crew of Recruits). Uninscribed statue of man and wife in serdab.
Stone-built mastaba. Mid Fifth Dynasty or Later.

G 1206 – Uninscribed painted limestone standing pair statue attributed to Senenu and wife from G 1206, Ikhetneb, offering chamber-serdab (quarter view proper left): Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19775. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A11578_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1208 Akhethetep – Royal Acquaintance, Royal Wab-priest, Inspector of Priests of Khufu, Expedition Leader, Overseer of the Pyramid of Khufu, Director of Members of a Phyle. Meretites wife.
Stone-built mastaba. Mid Fifth Dynasty or later.

G 1208, etc. – Street between G 1209 (to west) and G 1207 (to east), mud brick chapel of G 1209 (foreground left), and G 1208 abutting western face of G 1207, level of decay, looking north. Photo ID number: HUMFA_B11048_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1221 Shad – Royal Acquaintance. Name and title from limestone stela. Mudbrick-built mastaba. Likely Fifth Dynasty.

G 1221 – Limestone stela of Shad from G 1221: Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19777. Photo ID number: HUMFA_B11761_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1225 Nefretiabet – King’s Daughter. Stone-built Mastaba. Middle Fourth Dynasty.

G 1225 – Burial chamber, southeast corner, canopic pit, looking east-northeast. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A7213_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1231 Ankh-haf – Judge and Administrator of the Great House, Overseer of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Noble of the King (name and titles from court entrance lintel, drum lintel, door jambs). Decorated tomb includes scenes of netting fowl, cattle crossing water, and man brewing beer with bread. Stone-built mastaba. Late Fifth or Sixth Dynasty.

G 1231 – Drum lintel inscribed for Ankh-haf over entrance of court, looking south. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A6169_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

Cemetery G 1300, Reisner Hearst Expedition (Porter and Moss, pp. 61-62, missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1301 Mernisut – Royal Acquaintance, Royal wab-priest, Strong-of-Voice of the Granary of the Residence, Inspector of Custodians of Property of the Granary of the Residence, Inspector of Archivists of the Royal Documents (name and titles come from false door, a chapel relief, and other architectural elements). Wife Kames, daughter Hathorheknu, sons Kantef, Nikaure, and Niankhre (children and wife identified from false door and other architectural elements). Also attested, relation unknown, Denetka (female), Minankh, Nira (Ka-priest), Wenshet (female). South of the false door the deceased is depicted with his wife at a table with the offering list before them. Stone-built mastaba. Fifth Dynasty.

G 1301 – Limestone seated statue of Mernisut from G 1301 (quarter view proper right): Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 37713. Photo ID number: HUMFA_B11730_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1314 Khakare – Hairdresser of the King, Hairdresser of the Great House, Royal Wab-priest, Royal Acquaintance. Pair statue of king with a young boy, identifield as his son, Ankhremenes. Stone and rubble built mastaba. Second half of Fifth Dynasty.

G 1314 – Eastern face of mastaba, false door inscribed for Khakare, looking west. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A6018_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

Cemetery G 1400, Reisner Hearst Expedition (Porter and Moss, p. 64, missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1402 Sabu – Overseer of the Craftsmen of Weaving. His wife, Isran, is described only as a palace employee. Also recovered, a limestone statue of Sabu and his son, Irkaptah, as a child. His daughters were named Wehemnefret and Nefer. Rubble-built mastaba. Fifth Dynasty.

G 1402 – Painted limestone standing pair statue of Sabu and his son Irkaptah from G 1402 (quarter view proper right): Hearst Museum, Berkeley 6-19803. Photo ID number: HUMFA_B11748_OS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1452 – 1453 (double tomb) Kaninisut (Royal Acquaintance) and Djedwai (Royal Acquaintance, Priest of Khufu, Inspector of Wab-priests). Ankhkaus, wife of Djedwai (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore).

G 1453 – Djedwai’s Southern Chapel, looking southwest. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A7245_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

G 1457 Nisutnefret – Royal Acquaintance, Secretary of the King, Director of Royal Wab-priests, Overseer of the Pyramid of Khufu, Overseer of the Royal Wabet, Priest of khufu. Wife Peretim (Royal Acquaintance), known from false door for Nisutnefret. Brick-built mastaba with rubble core. Probably Fifth Dynasty.

G 1457 – Chapel, western wall, offering niche, false door inscribed for Nisutnefret, offering stand (34-11-9 = Cairo JE 67622) in situ, looking west. Photo ID number: HUMFA_A7251_NS, courtesy of Digital Giza – the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Giza Archives.

 

Works Cited:

“Collections: Ancient Egypt.” Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. University of California Berkeley. N.d. Web. Online: http://hearstmuseum.berkeley.edu/collections/ancient-egypt

“Major Projects.” The Qift Regional Expedition. Wayback Machine Internet Archive. N.d. Web. Online: https://web.archive.org/web/20050507205919/http://www.koptos.com/project1.htm

Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin. Vol. 11 Boston:1913. Web. Online:
https://books.google.com/books?id=k5tFAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA34&lpg=RA1-PA34&dq=reisner+hearst+western+cemetery&source=bl&ots=u8jq8ccrna&sig=f2dml0MZgN-Ztg_dotdv9v2syAM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwip1Z-iv6TTAhXoxYMKHeIfBggQ6AEIajAR#v=onepage&q=reisner%20hearst%20western%20cemetery&f=false

Peters, Elizabeth and Kristen Whitebread. “Amelia Peabody’s Egypt: A Compendium.” NY:MPM, 2003. First Edition.

Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974. Online at: http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf_library/porter-moss_III_giza.pdf

Reisner, George. “Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-Ed-Dur: Part 1.” Leipzig:1908.

“Reisner, George Andrew.” Dictionary of Art Historians. Lee R. Sorenson, ed. N.d. Web. Online: https://dictionaryofarthistorians.org/reisnerg.htm

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Copyright by Keith Payne, 2017. Unless otherwise noted, all images are in the public domain.

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