The Macedonian Dynasty
332 to 305 BC
|Period||Seat of Power||Factions||Dating System|
|Ptolemaic Period||Babylon||Egyptian, Macedonian||Shaw and Nicholson|
Having defeated the Persian Empire, Alexander of Macedonia assumed control of Egypt in 332 BC, reportedly much to the pleasure of the Egyptians. He was crowned at the Temple of Ptah at Memphis and paid homage at the Oracle of Amun soon thereafter. In 331 BC he founded the northern city of Alexandria then left Egypt to resume his conquest of the Mediterranean world.
Alexander was succeeded by his half-brother Philip III, who never ruled on his own due mental and physical disabilities, possibly as a result of an assassination attempt before Philip II’s death. The actual affairs of state were carried out by a series of regents—Perdiccas, followed by Antipater, who was succeeded by Polyperchon. Philip III was eventually assassinated on the orders of his grandmother, Queen Olympias, and Alexander’s son, Alexander IV, became the new emperor.
Alexander IV never actually visited Egypt. During the entire Macedonian Dynasty Egypt was actually ruled locally by Ptolemy Soter, a trusted general and friend of Alexander the Great. Ptolemy Soter continued to rule Egypt as governor for five years after the death of Philip III, finally declaring himself pharaoh in 305 BC, thus becoming Ptolemy I, founder of the Thirty-Third Dynasty.
|Name of Ruler||Years of Reign||Capitol|
|Alexander the Great||332 to 323 BC||Babylon|
|Philip III Arrhideaus||323 to 317 BC||Babylon|
|Alexander IV||317 to 310 BC||Babylon|