The next concession we will explore in the Western Cemetery is the German mission, the Sieglin Expedition. Founded by Georg Steindorff, much of the western strip was subsequently excavated by Hermann Junker. Along with Steindorff and Junker, we will also visit Ludwig Borchardt, whose notable presence began with the division of the concessions in 1902, when he stood in for Steindorff at the division of the concessions between the Americans, the Italians, and the Germans. The article will be followed by a representative look at mastabas from the Steindorff, Junker West, and Junker East sub-cemeteries.

Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part 6: Georg Steindorff, Ludwig Borchardt, Hermann Junker, and the Sieglin Expedition

Adolf Erman, a Professor of Egyptology at Leipzig who taught, besides Steindorff, James Henry Breasted, Herman Grapow, and had a profound influence on Dows Dunham and countless others, photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, and is in the public domain.

Adolf Erman, a Professor of Egyptology at Leipzig who taught, besides Steindorff, James Henry Breasted, Herman Grapow, Hermann Junker, and had a profound influence on Dows Dunham and countless others, photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, and is in the public domain.

To give the German concession proper treatment, we must know three German Egyptologists – Georg Steindorff, Ludwig Borchardt, and Hermann Junker. Georg Steindorff was a German Egyptologist who was educated at The University and The University of Berlin, where he became the first student of Adolf Erman, largely considered to be Leipsius‘s successor (Reid, p. 24). Erman was a specialist in decoding ancient Egyptian grammar, specializing in the differences of the Egyptian language during different periods. Erman would have an early and enduring influence on Steindorff, assisting him with his “Koptische Grammatik” (1894, revised and published in London and New York in 1904). Erman would later publish a companion to Steindorff’s “Koptische Grammatik,” entitled “Aegyptische Grammatik,” and this, in combination with Steindorff’s “Koptische,” would take us to new height in understanding both Coptic and ancient Egyptian, and their relationship (pp. 64-5). The mission takes its name from soap mogul Ernst von Sieglin, who funded the central strip project.

George Reisner and Georg Steindorff at Camp Harvard, looking east toward the pyramid of Khafre (foreground) and Khufu (background). Photo ID HUMFA_C13564_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

George Reisner and Georg Steindorff at Camp Harvard, looking east toward the pyramid of Khafre (foreground) and Khufu (background). Photo ID HUMFA_C13564_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

From 1893 to 1938, Steindorff was an assistant in the Berlin Museum, then moving to serve as Professor of Egyptology at Leipzig until 1938. At Leipzig, Steindorff founded the Egyptian Institute and studied Coptic with W. E. Crum, the latter literally writing the dictionary on Coptic in 1939. He earned his archaeological bones, so to speak, in the Libyan Desert from 1899 to 1900, but comes of particular interest to us when he goes to excavate in Giza in 1909 to 1911. In 1911, Steindorff traded his Giza commission to Hermann Junker of the Acadamie der Wissenschaften and the Pelizeus Museum of Hildesheim (Reisner, p. 23), in exchange for Junker’s Nubian Concession (Reisner, p. 23; Thompson, p. 230). He worked in Nubia in the 1912-1914 and 1930 to 1931 seasons.

Steindorff distinguished himself in the field of philology, and his 40 years of contributions to “Zeitschrift für ägyptische sprache und altertumskunde” (ZAS) has earned him a place as one of the go-to sources for Coptic and ancient Egyptian grammar to this day (Georg Steindorff – Giza Archives). In 1939, he fled to America as a refugee of World War II, where he continued to work at New York, Boston, Baltimore (where he would manage the Egyptian Collection for the Walters Art Museum), and the Oriental Institute of Chicago. In as much as one can call Steindorff retired, he settled in North Hollywood California, from where he continued work on a Coptic-Egyptian etymological dictionary until his death, in 1952 at age 91 (Steindorff Collection).

Ludwig Borchardt, Anonymous Archival Images, in "Amelia Peabody's Egypt" edited by Elizabeth Peters and Kristen Whitbread (NY:HarperCollins), p. 45.

Ludwig Borchardt, Anonymous Archival Images, in “Amelia Peabody’s Egypt” edited by Elizabeth Peters and Kristen Whitbread (NY:HarperCollins), p. 45.

Considering that Ludwig Borchardt stood in for Georg Steindorff during the division of the Western Cemetery Concessions at the Mena House in 1902, not to mention his many other contributions to the field, it is imperative that we do due diligence and include his biography here as well. Borchardt was a German Egyptologist with a background in architecture. He studied architecture at Technische Hochschule, an engineering university, from 1883 to 1887. He assisted with the Egyptian section at the Berlin Museum from 1890 to 1897. Borchardt first went to Egypt in 1895, where he worked at Philae with Captain Henry George Lyons, director general of The Archaeological Survey Department of Nubia. Himself an engineer and geologist, and a former soldier, Lyons went to work for the Egyptian Department of Public Works, which led to his surveying of the Philae Temple site in 1895 to 1896. Lyon’s task was to survey and clear the temple island in preparation for partial flooding during the process of building the Aswan Dam, and while conducting his work, Lyon discovered a large Roman trilingual stela which Borchardt helped him translate and publish, Lyons himself obviously having no small interest in Egyptology (Thompson, pp. 268-9).

Gaston Maspero, Anonymous Archival Images, in "Amelia Peabody's Egypt" edited by Elizabeth Peters and Kristen Whitbread (NY:HarperCollins), p. 26.

Gaston Maspero, Anonymous Archival Images, in “Amelia Peabody’s Egypt” edited by Elizabeth Peters and Kristen Whitbread (NY:HarperCollins), p. 26.

In conjunction with Gaston Maspero, Borchardt wrote the “Catalogue Général du Musée du Caire,” which was an ambitious accounting for the collection at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. He earned his doctorate in Egyptology under Adolf Erman, with whose help Borchardt was appointed as scientific attache at the German consulate in 1899. During this period, relying on funds from James Simon, as well as his own money, Borchardt excavated the Fifth Dynasty solar temples at Abu Gurab and Abusir (Reid, p. 25). Turning again to Erman for help, Borchardt founded the German Institute of Archaeology, Cairo (Zamalek) in 1907, which he ran until 1929, when a German retirement law forced him to step down (Dictionary of Art Historians). Borchardt would increasingly focus on Tel-el-Amarna, a site whose work was financed by its concession holder, the German Oriental Society in Berlin. One of his major finds there was the workshop of court sculptor, Thutmose, where the celebrated Bust of Nefertiti was discovered. Borchardt lived with the Bust in his apartment for 11 years without publishing it, until he transferred it to the Berlin Museum in 1924, activities that feed controversies even today. He died in Paris in 1930 (Dictionary of Art Historians).

Herman Junker at Nubia, circa 1911-12, photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, and is in the public domain.

Herman Junker at Nubia, circa 1911-12, photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, and is in the public domain.

Third, we will consider the life and career of Steindorff’s younger colleague and successor in the Western Cemetery of Khufu, Hermann Junker. Junker originally intended to train for the Catholic priesthood, but changed his mind when he was exposed to philology at Berlin (Manuelian, p. 146). Another student of Adolf Erman, Junker published his dissertation in 1903 entitled “On the Writing System in the Temple of Hathor in Dendera,” (Junker) clearly showing Erman’s philological influence. As an archaeologist, Junker made his first contributions excavating Predynastic and Early Dynastic sites at Tura, where he excavated a large cemetery from the Naqada III and early first Dynastic Periods (Bard, p. 27)

As mentioned above, Hermann Junker came to the Western Cemetery in 1911 when he traded his concession at Nubia with Steindorff for the German Concession at Giza. Junker was granted eight seasons to excavate the German Concession, but was interrupted in 1914, with the beginning of World War I. However, he was able resume in 1926 and continued to work until 1929, finishing the German section and continuing south before leaving it off (Manuelian, p. 146). Among Junker’s accomplishments were the excavation of the mastaba of Hemiunu himself, the designer of the Great Pyramid, and Khufu’s Overseer of all Construction Projects. In 1913, he excavated the remarkable painted mastaba of Kaninisut I, which was transported to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Another beautifully painted tomb discovered by Junker was that of Kaemankh (Manuelian p. 146).

Kaninuset I Blocks of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, western wall (relief between false doors depicting standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and their three children, Harwer, Wadjethetep, and Kaninisut "the younger"; registers of scribes and ka-priest: [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity; and register of offering bearers below: [bottom register] Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[...]khufu, Senebdisu). Currently in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (ÄS 8006). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0159, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Kaninuset I Blocks of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, western wall (relief between false doors depicting standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and their three children, Harwer, Wadjethetep, and Kaninisut “the younger”; registers of scribes and ka-priest: [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity; and register of offering bearers below: [bottom register] Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[…]khufu, Senebdisu). Currently in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (ÄS 8006). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0159, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

The German Concession can be divided into three cemeteries: Junker East and West, and the Steindorff Cemetery. As a representation, I have chosen five mastabas from each of the cemeteries, using Bertha Porter and Rosalind L.B. Moss’s “Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr)” as a framewor, and filling in details from the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza (giza.fas.harvard.edu).

As with all of the editions of the Khufu’s Western Cemetery, this article is a humble tribute to the fantastic Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza (see above). Digital Giza is still a work in progress, so if you have trouble, at least for now, the original online Giza Archives (www.gizapyramids.org) is still available. The intention of this series is not only to educate and promote interest in the Old Kingdom Western Cemetery, but to drive people to explore the voluminous Giza Archives. For Old Kingdom aficionados, it is a home away from home, accessible in your home at home. Now, on to the mastabas.. [Works Cited at the bottom of the article].

 

The German Concession Subsections – Junker West, the Steindorff Cemetery, and Junker East

 

Junker Cemetery West – (Porter and Moss, pp. 100-08)

Ankhu (2) – He Who is Carried in the Litter and Overseer of Weavers of the Great House.

Stone-built mastaba, late Old Kingdom. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Ankhu (2), eastern face, looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_3050, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Ankhu (2), eastern face, looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_3050, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Drum lintel inscribed for Ankhu from mastaba of Ankhu (2). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_3015, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Drum lintel inscribed for Ankhu from mastaba of Ankhu (2). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_3015, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Meshetj – Inspector of Wab priests of the Pyramid of Khufu.

Mastaba with stone casing, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker

Mastaba of Meshetj, chapel corridor entrance, inscribed lintel and drum lintel, looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2954, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meshetj, chapel corridor entrance, inscribed lintel and drum lintel, looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2954, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meshetj, corridor chapel, mud brick arches, small window in northern wall, looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2955, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meshetj, corridor chapel, mud brick arches, small window in northern wall, looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2955, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Shetwi – Royal Acquaintance, King’s Wab Priest, Inspector of Scribes of the Granary, Overseer of the Wab Priests. Intrusive inscription stating “It is Tetu who has made this for him.”

Stone-built mastaba, end of Fifth or Sixth Dynasties. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Blocks of relief from chapel entrance door jambs of mastaba of Shetwi. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2903, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Blocks of relief from chapel entrance door jambs of mastaba of Shetwi. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2903, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief from mastaba of Shetwi, chapel, eastern wall, showing livestock procession. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2885, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief from mastaba of Shetwi, chapel, eastern wall, showing livestock procession. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2885, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Inpuhetep – Royal Acquaintance, Priest of the Shrine of Anubis, Embalmer. Father, Itjer (Priest of Niuserre, Royal Acquaintance, Priest of the Shrine of Anubis). Sister, Hetepheres (Daughter of Itjer). Brother, Ibeb (Son of Itjer and Embalmer).

Stone-built Mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Inpuhetep, chapel entrance with lintel inscribed for Inpuhetep and relief carved facade faces of door jambs, large scale inscription along top of mastaba west of entrance (middle ground), mastaba S 2522/2524 (to west of entrance, right) and mastaba S 2499/2521 (to east of entrance, left), looking south-southwest. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2814, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Inpuhetep, chapel entrance with lintel inscribed for Inpuhetep and relief carved facade faces of door jambs, large scale inscription along top of mastaba west of entrance (middle ground), mastaba S 2522/2524 (to west of entrance, right) and mastaba S 2499/2521 (to east of entrance, left), looking south-southwest. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2814, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Inpuhetep, chapel, offering stone inscribed for Inpuhetep (Hildesheim RPM_3042) in situ in front of southern false door, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2815, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Inpuhetep, chapel, offering stone inscribed for Inpuhetep (Hildesheim RPM_3042) in situ in front of southern false door, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2815, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Sinefer – Royal Acquaintance, Inspector of the Great House. Wife, Ankhhathor (Royal acquaintance).

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Sinefer, chapel entrance, lintel inscribed for Sinefer, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2837, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Sinefer, chapel entrance, lintel inscribed for Sinefer, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2837, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Sinefer, chapel, southern false door with cross-bar (i.e., lower lintel) inscribed for Sinefer, looking southwest through a hole in the chapel roof. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2840, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Sinefer, chapel, southern false door with cross-bar (i.e., lower lintel) inscribed for Sinefer, looking southwest through a hole in the chapel roof. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2840, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Steindorff Cemetery – Mostly brick-built mastabas. (Porter and Moss, pp.108-18)

D59 Nisutnefer (Ka-priest). Wife Senet.

Stone and brick-built mastaba, Fifth through Sixth Dynasties. Excavated by Georg Steindorff.

Area west of mastaba G 4000 (right), D 61 and D 59 (left), looking north(?). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0674, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Area west of mastaba G 4000 (right), D 61 and D 59 (left), looking north(?). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0674, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Although Hemieunu’s great mastaba (G 4000) dominates the photo (looking south-southeast), the northern end of Nisutnefer’s D 59 can be seen in the foreground, right. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_5058, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Although Hemieunu’s great mastaba (G 4000) dominates the photo (looking south-southeast), the northern end of Nisutnefer’s D 59 can be seen in the foreground, right. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_5058, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

D116 Seshemu – Overseer of the Crew of Rowers. Wife Nefret.

Stone-built mastaba, Fifth or Sixth Dynasties. Excavated by George Steindorff, re-excavated by Hermann Junker.

D 116 and mastaba of Nu(?) (foreground right), D 117 (foreground left), looking south along street (III) between G 4360 (= III n, to west) and G 4460 (= IV n, to east). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0539, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 116 and mastaba of Nu(?) (foreground right), D 117 (foreground left), looking south along street (III) between G 4360 (= III n, to west) and G 4460 (= IV n, to east). The system of makeshift human-powered railways used to cart off the dig debris, along with one of the rail cars, is visible in this image.  Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0539, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door tablet (depicting Seshemu and his wife Nefret seated at offering table) from D 116, shaft S 2163, currently in the Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim (acc. no. 3044). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2781, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door tablet (depicting Seshemu and his wife Nefret seated at offering table) from D 116, shaft S 2163, currently in the Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim (acc. no. 3044). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2781, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

D 117 Wehemka – Royal Acquaintance, Scribe of the Library, Scribe of Recruits, and Steward. Wife Hetepibes Ipi (Royal Acquaintance). Father Iti (Royal Acquaintance), mother Djefatsen. Grandmother Bebi. Sons Rahetep (Royal Acquaintance, Scribe of the House, and Scribe of the Library) and Wehemka (Possible son of tomb owner, Scribe). Daugters Henutsen (Royal Acquaintance), Meretib (Royal Acquaintance), and Nefertjes (Royal Acquaintance). Son-in-law Neferhernemti (Royal Acquaintance, Inspector of Wab-priests, Brother of the Funerary Estate, and husband of Nefertjes – a daughter of Wehemka). Granddaughter Satmeret (Daughter of Nefertjes)

A number of those attested had single titles, grouped here. Scribes: Isi, Kaemnefret, Kahersetef, Kanefer, and Khentika. Others of the scribe profession included: Kaemnefret (Scribe of the Library, Steward), Khnumhetep (Scribe of the Library), Nisuwesret (Scribe and Scribe of the Library), and Seneb (Scribe of the Library).

Pepi was identified as “Director of Sealers,” and a number of other people had the sole title of Sealer: Iyni, Mery, Nedjet, Neferen, Nesi, Persenet, Seti, and Tjenti (2) – called “2” because there was another Tjenti. Khetemmedjat held the title Butcher of the Slaughterhouse, and there were a number of other individuals simply titled Butcher: Ankhi, Kanebef, Khenet, and Nakhmaat. Nineksu was also a Butcher, as well as Director of the Dining Hall. Wehemka’s household was not lacking for Butlers: Ankheres, Ankhtef, Iy, Mernebef, and Mesi.

Other attested individuals with titles include: Djeba (Herdsman), Henutempet (Supervisor of Linen), Hy (Hairdresser), Inekh (Brewer), Iti (Strong-of-Voice of the Library and Steward), Khetemti (Director of the Dining Hall), Meruidu (Supervisor of Linen), Neferaf (Elder of the House), Neferqed (Ka-priest), Ninekishet (Ka-priest), Perhernefret (Retainer), Perneb (Ka-priest), Pesesh (Chief), Saset (Brewer), Satju (Recruit), Tjenti (Chief), Djefatka (Royal Acquaintance and Sister of the Funerary Estate) and Khenut (Royal Acquaintance, found on displaced block near D117, relation, if any, uncertain).

There were also a number of people attested to in D 117 who did not have titles associated with their names, many of them offering-bearers (see photograph): Ankhhenutes (depicted as small girl), Ankhi, Djaret, Djenef, Hui, Itisen, Iynefer, Kaaper, Khnumnefer, Neferkhuu, Senmerer, Shedus, Wahher, and Watet, Meretites, Meretmin, Nefrethanisut, Nefretka, and Tjentet.

Stone-built mastaba, early Fifth Dynasty. Excavated by Georg Steindorff.

D 117, eastern face, chapel entrance, lintel inscribed for Wehemka (part of Hildesheim acc. no. 2970), looking south-southwest. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0640, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 117, eastern face, chapel entrance, lintel inscribed for Wehemka (part of Hildesheim acc. no. 2970), looking south-southwest. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0640, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 117, Wehemka, chapel (Hildesheim acc. no. 2970), northern wall, relief (two bottom registers, offering bearers identified as [upper register] Neferaf, Ankhi, Nakhmaat, Shedus, Ankhtef, Watet, Wahher, [lower register] Perneb, Khetemti, Iyni, Kanebef, Itisen, Inekh), looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5591, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 117, Wehemka, chapel (Hildesheim acc. no. 2970), northern wall, relief (two bottom registers, offering bearers identified as [upper register] Neferaf, Ankhi, Nakhmaat, Shedus, Ankhtef, Watet, Wahher, [lower register] Perneb, Khetemti, Iyni, Kanebef, Itisen, Inekh), looking north. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5591, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D203 Nefer – Overseer of Barbers, and Itisen – Overseer of the t3w of the Great Bark.

Stone-built mastaba, late Fifth or Sixth Dynasties. Excavated by Georg Steindorff.

D 202 and S 203 (foreground), D 210 (middle ground left), D 208 (with four pillars) and D 207 (middle ground center and right), looking south-southwest from G 2000 (aka, Lepsius 23). Photo ID HUMFA_A11637_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 202 and S 203 (foreground), D 210 (middle ground left), D 208 (with four pillars) and D 207 (middle ground center and right), looking south-southwest from G 2000 (aka, Lepsius 23). Photo ID HUMFA_A11637_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 201, with false doors on W wall of corridor chapel (foreground), D 202, D 203, and D 204 (sequentially to W), D 208, with pillared portico (partially excavated, background center), looking SW. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5740, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 201, with false doors on W wall of corridor chapel (foreground), D 202, D 203, and D 204 (sequentially to the west), D 208, with pillared portico (partially excavated, background center), looking SW. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5740, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

D208 Neferihy – Overseer of Washmen and Tomb-makers. Drum of entrance doorway has the name and titles of his son: Kai – Inspector of Prophets, King’s Wab Priest.

Mud-brick mastaba, Fifth or Sixth Dynasties. Excavated by George Steindorff.

D 208, serdab, roofing, looking east. Photo ID HUMFA_C10603_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 208, serdab, roofing, looking east. Photo ID HUMFA_C10603_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 208, serdab, statues inscribed for Neferihy (seated statue is Hildesheim acc, no. 13, seated scribe statue is Leipzig acc. No. 2687) in situ. Photo ID HUMFA_C10605_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

D 208, serdab, statues inscribed for Neferihy (seated statue is Hildesheim acc, no. 13, seated scribe statue is Leipzig acc. No. 2687) in situ. Photo ID HUMFA_C10605_OS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Junker Cemetery East (Porter and Moss, pp. 118-22)

Meruka (2) – Elder of the Hall, King’s Wab-priest, Prophet of Khufu. Wife Nedjetempet, Royal Acquaintance. Father Kakherptah (Elder of the Hall). Sons Ihiemsaf and Ptahshepses. Also attested, Nikare (Brother of the Funerary Estate).

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker and Montague Ballard.

Mastaba of Meruka (2), chapel, pillared portico, looking east-southeast. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2612, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meruka (2), chapel, pillared portico, looking east-southeast. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2612, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meruka (2), chapel, western wall (middle), inscription (compartment offering list, immediately above bottom register of offering bearers carrying forelegs; heads of two of Meruka's sons, Ihiemsaf and Ptahshepses, visible), looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2715, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Meruka (2), chapel, western wall (middle), inscription (compartment offering list, immediately above bottom register of offering bearers carrying forelegs; heads of two of Meruka’s sons, Ihiemsaf and Ptahshepses, visible), looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2715, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Neferen – Overseer of Corn-measurers, of the Store Room, Overseer of the Storehouse, and Overseer of Female Weavers. Wife Iyti. Son Mery, possible son Djat (Royal Acquaintance and Scribe). Son or grandson, Wer (Scribe). Attested, relatns, if any, unknown: Hetepi (Ka-priest), Hetepib , Hetepibef (Ka-priest), Hetepre, Inet, Pepi, Werbauptah, and Wemembmaat (Overseer of Ka-priests).

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Neferen (foreground right), mastaba S 111/115 (built on angle, foreground center), shaft S 128 (foreground left), mastaba of Khnemu (middle ground left) and mastaba S 179 (middle ground center right), mastaba of Weri (to south of Khnemu) with mastaba S 101/113 (abutting southern end of Weri), D 118 (background right), looking south to G 4560. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5340, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Neferen (foreground right), mastaba S 111/115 (built on angle, foreground center), shaft S 128 (foreground left), mastaba of Khnemu (middle ground left) and mastaba S 179 (middle ground center right), mastaba of Weri (to south of Khnemu) with mastaba S 101/113 (abutting southern end of Weri), D 118 (background right), looking south to G 4560. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5340, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Various inscribed architectural elements: block of chapel entrance lintel inscribed for Imsetka from G 4351; upper part of false door inscribed for Nensedjerkai [II] found east of mastaba of Khuy: Ägyptisches Museum der Universität Leipzig 3131; false door inscribed for Neferen: Ägyptisches Museum der Universität Leipzig 3135; drum lintel inscribed for Ankhmahor Inkhi. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2792, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Various inscribed architectural elements: block of chapel entrance lintel inscribed for Imsetka from G 4351; upper part of false door inscribed for Nensedjerkai [II] found east of mastaba of Khuy: Ägyptisches Museum der Universität Leipzig 3131; false door inscribed for Neferen: Ägyptisches Museum der Universität Leipzig 3135; drum lintel inscribed for Ankhmahor Inkhi. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_II_2792, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Weri – Inspector of Ka-servants, One Belonging to the Great Estate, Scribe of the Treasury.

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Weri (middle ground right) with mastaba S 101/113 (abutting S end), looking south to northern ends of G 4560 and G 4660, mastaba of User [User (1)] (foreground, partially unroofed chapel, foreground left) with mastaba S 120/666 (abutting southern end) and mastaba S 106/117 (immediately to south, middle ground center) with shaft S 100a (abutting western face of S 106/117), mastaba S 104 (middle ground left) with mastaba S 95/112 (immediately to south), Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5280, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Weri (middle ground right) with mastaba S 101/113 (abutting southern end), looking south to northern ends of G 4560 and G 4660, mastaba of User [User (1)] (foreground, partially unroofed chapel, foreground left) with mastaba S 120/666 (abutting southern end) and mastaba S 106/117 (immediately to south, middle ground center) with shaft S 100a (abutting western face of S 106/117), mastaba S 104 (middle ground left) with mastaba S 95/112 (immediately to south), Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5280, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Weri, chapel, western wall, relief (detail, Weri seated at offering table), looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5551_1, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Weri, chapel, western wall, relief (detail, Weri seated at offering table), looking west. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5551_1, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

User (1) – Royal Acquaintance, Overseer of Ka-servants. Mother Henutsen.

Stone-built mastaba, late Fifth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Area east and southeast of mastaba of User (1) (foreground right) with mastabas S 104 and S 95/112 (to southeast), shaft S 7 (foreground left), mastaba S 5/18 (foreground center) with mastaba S 91/93 and intrusive shafts S 83 and S 87 (middle ground center left), mastaba S 8/82 (middle ground left) and mastaba S 67/90 (background left), looking south-southeast to northern end of G 4660. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5302, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Area east and southeast of mastaba of User (1) (foreground right) with mastabas S 104 and S 95/112 (to southeast), shaft S 7 (foreground left), mastaba S 5/18 (foreground center) with mastaba S 91/93 and intrusive shafts S 83 and S 87 (middle ground center left), mastaba S 8/82 (middle ground left) and mastaba S 67/90 (background left), looking south-southeast to northern end of G 4660. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5302, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of User (1), serdab, uninscribed statue attributed to User in situ, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5167, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of User (1), serdab, uninscribed statue attributed to User in situ, looking south. Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5167, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Shepsi – Inspector of Builders. Wife Neferwates. Sons Suk and Werkaptah. Daughters Djefaibka, Kaemmerut , and Hui.

Stone-built mastaba, Sixth Dynasty. Excavated by Hermann Junker.

Mastaba of Shepsi (west of S 72/79, middle ground left), looking north toward G 2100-II and southern end of G 2120, mastaba of Maathep (foreground right) with mastaba S 60/103 (to north, middle ground right), mastaba S 57 (foreground center left) with mastabas S 53/86 and S 72/79 (to north), and intrusive shafts S 63 and S 70 (to east of S 72/79). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5299, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba of Shepsi (west of S 72/79, middle ground left), looking north toward G 2100-II and southern end of G 2120, mastaba of Maathep (foreground right) with mastaba S 60/103 (to north, middle ground right), mastaba S 57 (foreground center left) with mastabas S 53/86 and S 72/79 (to north), and intrusive shafts S 63 and S 70 (to east of S 72/79). Photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5299, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door tablet inscribed for Shepsi from mastaba of Shepsi, northern false door (Shepsi and his wife Neferwates seated at offering table, and his children below: Djefaibka, Kaemmerut, Werkaptah, Suk, Hui), currently in Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (ÄS 8519). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0195, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door tablet inscribed for Shepsi from mastaba of Shepsi, northern false door (Shepsi and his wife Neferwates seated at offering table, and his children below: Djefaibka, Kaemmerut, Werkaptah, Suk, Hui), currently in Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (ÄS 8519). Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0195, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Previous articles in this series:

Works Cited:

Bard, Kathyrn A. “Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt.” New York: 1999. Routlage Online: https://archive.org/stream/EncyclopediaOfTheArchaeologyOfAncientEgypt/EncyclopediaOfTheArchaeologyOfAncientEgypt_djvu.txt

Crum, W. E. “Steindorff’s Koptische Grammatik”, The Critical Review of Theological and Philosophical Literature, Volume 5. (pp. 64-66). Salmond, S. D. F., Ed. 1895. (Pp. 64-5).

Dictionary of Art Historians. “Borchardt, Ludwig.” N.d. Online: https://dictionaryofarthistorians.org/borchardtl.htm

Georg Steindorff. Digital Giza. Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard University. Web. Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/modernpeople/464/intro/

Junker, Hermann. “Grammatik der Denderatexte.” Hathi Trust Digital Library. Leipzig:1906. Web. Online: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008910291

Manuelian, Peter Der. “Excavating the Old Kingdom: The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields.” Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: 1999. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/513/intro/

Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. “Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr)”. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974. Online at: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/95/intro/

Reid, Donald Malcolm. “Contesting Antiquity in Egypt: Archaeologies, Museums, and the Struggle for Identities from World War I to Nasser.” American University in Cairo Press. 2015.

Reisner, George A. “A History of the Giza Necropolis 1.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942. Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/128/intro/

“Steindorff Collection.” Bridwell Library Special Collections. Perkins School of Theology. Southern Methodist University. Web N.d. Online: https://sites.smu.edu/bridwell/specialcollections/steindorff/steindorff.htm

Thompson, Jason. “Wonderful Things: A History of Egyptology 2: The Golden Age: 1881-1914.” American University in Cairo Press, 2015.

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Copyright Keith Payne, 2017.

 

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