In the Khufu’s Western Cemetery series, it is time to return to George Reisner.  After losing support from the Hearst family in 1904, Reisner gained the support of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and went on to spend many productive years on the Giza Plateau.  The quantity of work Reisner produced during the Harvard/MFA years will require several installations in this series, but before resuming with biographies for our introductions, we will first examine the basic elements of mastabas.  This is by no means exhaustive, but it is a good place to start.


Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part 7a: Mastaba Basics and Reisner and the Harvard University/MFA Expedition

 

A Short History of Mastabas to the Fourth Dynasty

“Restoration of the Necropolis of Gizeh,” from Georges Chipiez, p. 169

George Reisner describes the earliest mastabas as “ short oblong constructions with two paired offering niches and exterior open air chapels marked off by crude brick walls” (1934, p. 73).  He elsewhere describes “crude brick” as “unbaked mud” (1931, p. xxi).  Reisner states that this technological discovery dates to the time of Narmer, if not earlier.  This improved system of brickmaking allowed the ancient Egyptians to build a block structure with a wooden roof, and was essentially an improvement on the burial mounds of Predynastic times.  The earliest mastabas were built over open-pit graves (1934, p. 73).

Reconstruction of a Predynastic burial at the Oriental Institute Museum (acc. no. OIM 11488). The burial pit would have been covered with an earthen mound the was the precursor of the mastaba superstructure. Photo by Anne Snyder Payne.

Reconstruction of a Predynastic burial at the Oriental Institute Museum (acc. no. OIM 11488). The burial pit would have been covered with an earthen mound the was the precursor of the mastaba superstructure. Photo by Anne Snyder Payne.

The two most basic elements of the mastaba are the superstructure – the brick, above ground edifice which contained elements we will discuss later, and the substructure – one or more  shafts that bored down through the top of the mastaba, deep into the limestone beneath, and contained the actual burial chamber.  Some shafts were simple vertical constructions with a covered burial chamber at the bottom.  Other shafts would extend into horizontal hallways leading to the burial chamber.  We will learn more about these details below.

A Predynastic tomb at Minshate Abu Omar, excavated to reveal the crude brick lined substructure. Adams and Cialowicz, p. 20.

A Predynastic tomb at Minshate Abu Omar, excavated to reveal the crude brick lined substructure. Adams and Cialowicz, p. 20.

The first evolution in crude brick mastabas was the addition of a protective layer of brickwork at the base.  Reisner notes the importance of this innovation by pointing out that this eventually led to the brick-stepped mastabas, which evolved into the pyramids themselves (1934, p. 580).  The next major transformation, at least for royal mastabas, was the addition of mud brick shrines that were forerunners of the valley shrines that would become an important aspect of pyramid complexes.  These shrines had offering niches on all four sides, and had various chambers for offerings, but no substructure. These later mastabas had paneled surfaces, probably reflecting the paneling of palace walls, and were decoratively painted.  

A reconstruction of a Naqada III elite tomb at Hierakonpolis. Friedman, p. 44.

A reconstruction of a Naqada III elite tomb at Hierakonpolis. Friedman, p. 44.

The large mastabas of the First Dynasty had paneled facades and ka-doors on all four sides, although the two-niched variety was probably still employed for smaller mastabas.  In the Second Dynasty, paneled facades were rarely used for all sides of the mastaba, and the dual-niche form was more widely reintroduced.  However, rather than a niche, the southern wall was considered primary and still had ka-doors with palace-style facading.  In the Third Dynasty, large mastabas could be found with the elaborate ka-door as the primary niche, but most mastabas had gone back to a more plain type of niche, even for the primary focus of offerings (Reisner, 1934, p. 580).

Offering recess in the eastern wall of a Third Dynasty mastaba at Reqaqnah (R 54), photo by John Garstang, public domain.

Offering recess in the eastern wall of a Third Dynasty mastaba at Reqaqnah (R 54), photo by John Garstang, public domain.

This brings us up to the time of the construction of the Western Cemetery.  Reisner states that when Khufu came to the throne in the Fourth Dynasty, the crude brick form of mastaba was still in vogue, with two basic types.  One variety had two external offering niches on the valley side, with the southern niche being the primary.  The other type of mastaba had the interior cruciform chapel.  Some of these mastabas had additional ka-doors, palace facade, paneling, and nearly all of them had different types of exterior chapels, usually roofed.  In terms of the internal construction, there were two types – one type with a rubble-filled interior, with the crude block exterior wall serving as a sort of retainer, and a type that was constructed of crude block all the way through.  Another major change that occurred during the time of Khufu was that cruciform chapels had deep recesses into which a finer type of facing stone could be placed to facilitate carved relief (Reisner, 1942, p. 4).

 

Core Types

George Reisner divided mastaba core types into two general groups: filled mastabas and cased core mastabas.  The latter type he further subdivided into two varieties – massive cores and rubble/small stone cores (1914, p. 6).  When constructing mastabas, the stone surface of the ground was first prepared.  

With filled mastabas, the first course of retaining wall was put into place.  The core was then filled in, flush with the top of the retaining wall, and then dressed in preparation for the next course.  The builders proceeded in this manner, layer by layer.  The casing stones of the burial shaft, which extended through the core, were simultaneously constructed course by course.  In the case of massive and rubble core mastabas, the interior blocks and shaft casing were likewise laid course by course as the retaining wall was built (1942, p. 38).

Reisner's three basic core types - filled (G 2100), Massive (G 4240, and rubble/small stone (G 2130) (Reisner and Fisher, 1914, pp. 10, 13, and 15, respectively).

Reisner’s three basic core types – filled (G 2100), Massive (G 4240, and rubble/small stone (G 2130) (Reisner and Fisher, 1914, pp. 10, 13, and 15, respectively).

With the Western Cemetery, Khufu introduces a departure from the crude brick mastaba in favor of mastabas built of stone.  Most of the earlier form, like many of the crude brick mastabas, consisted of a stone block outer wall with an interior filled with rubble.  However, in some of the more upscale versions, the interior consisted of smaller stone blocks held in place by plaster.  The exterior of these earlier stone mastabas were also constructed of a smaller brick than the latter form, with each layer being set back about 5-12 cm from the previous layer.  This step-style construction provided strength to the walls, allowing them to support the weight of the rubble within.  Most of these earlier Western Cemetery mastabas did not have casing stones (although the plan may have been to eventually encase them)  and had an exterior crude brick chapel (see “Casing Types” and “Chapel Types,” below).  

The next step in the development of stone mastabas in the Western Cemetery was the massive-core type, which had exterior walls of much larger blocks cut from the local nummulitic limestone.  These were also stepped for stability purposes.  Some of these larger mastabas were adorned fully or partially with smoother-grade white limestone casing blocks. It seems that from the outset, he intended the mastabas of the Western Cemetery to have external chapels.  Most of the initial large mastabas had crude brick exterior chapels with high quality slab stelae.  However, some of the earlier large-core mastabas did have white limestone facing blocks over their crude block exterior chapels.  Two of the earlier large-core mastabas were faced with smaller blocks, making them look like larger versions of their smaller forbearers (Reisner, 1942, pp. 6-7).  

External stone chapel of massive core mastaba G 4240, looking west-southwest, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

External stone chapel of massive core mastaba G 4240, looking west-southwest, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Late in the reign of Khufu and into the early part of Khafre’s reign, there were additional modifications to the stone mastabas of the Western Cemetery. Large-core mastabas were constructed with a recess at the southern end to accommodate an interior chapel cased with the higher-grade white limestone. By Khafre’s reign, internal chapel would become much more common.  Reisner proposes that one reason for creating interior chapels was to leave more space in the avenues between the mastabas for more elaborate external chapels (Reisner, 1942, pp. 7, 9).

 

Casing Types Index

George Reisner classified several different types of mastaba casings, which we define here as you will need to be familiar with (and refer back to) these types when we get around to Reisner’s classification of mastaba types.  Peter Der Manuelian describes most of these casing types as such:

  • Casing x: “finely fitted and smoothly dressed fine white limestone to a sloping face: blocks of stone laid with the grain horizontal (2009.p. 36)
  • Casing y: “similar in appearance to x but with higher courses and with the blocks (or slabs) set with the grain slanting (parallel to the dressed face of the casing) (2009, p. 36)
  • Casing z: gray nummulitic limestone: small blocks set in low-stepped courses.
  • Masonry w: gray nummulitic limestone set in high courses and roughly dressed to a sloping surface (2009, p. 36)

Reisner also classified facing types u, which he defined as “grey nummulitic limestone: small blocks set in correspondingly low courses, to form a rough sloping surface,” and type ZU, which he defined as a “late combination of z- and u- masonry: small blocks of nummulitic limestone: sloping-faced courses: narrow steps” (1942, p. 178).  Manuelian states that types x and y were used during Khufu’s time, and that z, w, u, and zu were introduced later (2009, p. 36).

Reisner's classification of different mastaba casing types, adapted from "History of the Giza Necropolis," 1942, p. 179.

Reisner’s classification of different mastaba casing types, adapted from “History of the Giza Necropolis,” 1942, p. 179.

Reisner distinguished that x-casing was more expensive than the others, with the y-class needing less stone, and with higher courses, could be constructed more quickly.  Y-casing may have been developed specifically to be a less expensive alternative to x-casing (1942, p. 178)

 

Chapel Types

In their earliest form, mastaba chapels had been open-air constructions, demarcated by a low enclosure wall, with an opening in the southern end.  During the reign of Khasekhemwy, two new types of chapels were developed for mastabas.  In one type, to protect the tomb paintings, the chapel was built into the southern end of the mastaba, which provided it with walls and a roof.  These mastabas had lesser, subsidiary chapels at the northern end.  The other type of chapel was an exterior, roofed chapel, again, to provide protection for the decorations and items within.  In Reisner’s terminology, which we shall adopt as our own, the interior chapels were called cruciform, with the offering niche being opposite the entrance.  Reisner notes that in the cruciform chapels, the west wall – the side with the offering niche – was considered a part of the mastaba facade, despite being inside (Reisner, 1934, pp. 580-81).  There was also an L-shaped form of interior chapel which we will define shortly.

Reisner further differentiates the cruciform interior chapels into three types.  In the first type, the primary offering niche opposite the doorway took the form of a great door.  In the second type, the primary wall was a simple compound niche.  In the third type, the western wall of the chapel was reminiscent of palace facade, with a great door in the center, and three “dummy doors” on each side.  This last type of chapel wall was not introduced until the late Third Dynasty to the early Fourth Dynasty (Reisner, 1934, p. 581).

Generally speaking, the early exterior chapels were constructed abutting the southern part of the mastaba’s eastern wall.  These earlier mastabas had no exterior offering niche – the offering site was on the western wall of the exterior chapel, where the stepped exterior of the mastaba was exposed and into which was cut an emplacement for a slab stela depicting the interred at an offering table (Reisner, 1942, p. 6).

Slab stela of Iny from G 1235, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc.no JE 37727, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Slab stela of Iny from G 1235, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc.no JE 37727, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Reisner proposes the lack of offering niches in the faces of these earlier mastabas as possibly being related to to the difficulty of carving a ka-door into the stepped masonry.  He further surmises that this may indicate that these mastabas were originally intended to be covered with the smoother facing stones which would allow the necessary engraving.  In the places where the niches would presumably be constructed once the casing stone was in place, the slab stelae served to denote the sanctity of the spot.  These slab stelae are of such high quality that Reisner concludes that they were a gift of the king, the external chapels were to remain standard, and that covering the exterior with facing stones was a later change of plans (Reisner, 1942, pp. 7-8).

This difficulty of creating offering niches in stepped masonry was also mitigated by inserting a monolithic ka-door into the external surface, sometimes over a slab stela.  Reisner’s belief that external offering niches disappeared due to the difficulty of carving them into the stepped-block surface appears to be vindicated by the return to the old, crude brick-style, mastabas with the increased used of smooth casing stones later in the cemetery’s life.  Once facing stones were in common use, the two niche, exterior chapel style of mastaba made a comeback (Reisner, 1942, p. 9).  We will now distinguish in brief Reisner’s Chapel typology.  Unless otherwise indicated, this information comes from Reisner’s “Necropolis” (1942), pp. 187-291.  For simplicity sake, we will define the classes only, without getting into the subclasses.

A monolithic false door concealing the slab stela of Iunu, G 4150, looking south-southwest, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

A monolithic false door concealing the slab stela of Iunu, G 4150, looking south-southwest, photo courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Reisner’s Chapel Type Index

Chapel Type I: Exterior multiple room crude brick chapels built around a slab stela fixed in the stepped face of the core.

Chapel Type Ia, G 1205 (Reisner, 1942, p. 188)

Chapel Type Ia, G 1205 (Reisner, 1942, p. 188)

Chapel Type II:  Exterior L-shaped stone chapels with one niche.  An L-shaped chapel typically has an entrance in the northern end of the eastern mastaba wall, with a single offering niche at the south end of the western wall, making it impossible to see the niche from the outside, unlike other interior chapels (Reisner, 1942, p. 8).  

Chapel Type III:  Interior stone chapel, sometimes hollowed out of mastaba cores which were not constructed with an interior chapel in mind.  Could have one or two niches in the western wall.

Chapel Type IIIa, G 2130 (Reisner, 1942, p. 204)

Chapel Type IIIa, G 2130 (Reisner, 1942, p. 204)

Chapel Type IV:  Early two-niched chapels.  Evolved from Type IVa to IVb by losing the subsidiary northern niche (as discussed in early mastaba types above) and influence of rock-cut chapels.

Chapel Type V:  Evolution of Type IV  two-niched chapels where the where the western wall is extended to envelop an interior chapel.  Usually without a northern subsidiary niche.

Chapel Type VI:  Interior chapels of cruciform type, with one and two niched varieties.  

Chapel Type VIb, G 5110 (Reisner, 1942, p. 249)

Chapel Type VIb, G 5110 (Reisner, 1942, p. 249)

Chapel Type VII:  Interior mastaba with east-west offering room.  Could have a two-room variety, with both east-west and north-south offering rooms.  Could also be multiple rooms arranged around a cruciform nucleus.

Chapel Type VIIb, G 1047 (Reisner, 1942, p. 262)

Chapel Type VIIb, G 1047 (Reisner, 1942, p. 262)

Chapel Type VIII:  Exterior, roofed mastaba chapel with occurrences of corridor layout being dependant on the sort of niche work performed on the mastaba facade.   Could be connected with interior chapels.  Could consist of one or multiple rooms arranged around primary niche.

Chapel Type IX: Open-air chapel with various forms of niche work on the mastaba facade.  There are some variations on Type IX chapels, which will be defined in the Mastaba Type Index where appropriate.

Chapel Type X:  Interior chapel of a roughly square room, could be approached by a north-south corridor, roof often supported by one or more pillars, one or two niches in the west wall.

Chapel Type XI:  Portico chapels, pillared, constructed in a shallow recess in the facade of the mastaba, open to the east, lacking other rooms.  Could have an open court or a roofed corridor.  

Chapel Type XI portico, G 2001, G 2004, G 4513 (Reisner, 1942, pp. 183-187)

Chapel Type XI portico, G 2001, G 2004, G 4513 (Reisner, 1942, pp. 183-187)

Chapel Type XII:  Complex chapels. Many of the Type XII chapels were unique, but generally were large, complex chapels which occupied most of the mastaba and were decorated for more than one person.  Chapel was partly interior, partly exterior.

Chapel Type XIII:  Anomalous chapels, could have two roofed niches used as chapels, but otherwise do not fit with the previous 12 chapel types.

 

Burial Shafts and Chambers

Reisner distinguishes three basic types of burial shafts, although he goes into great detail regarding their specifics.  For our purposes, we will stick to the basics.  There were the simple vertical open pit shafts, an example of which would be Reisner’s Type VII shafts (1942, p. 97).  There were shafts where the vertical pit opened into a horizontal hallway ending in a simple, unlined burial chamber cut from the limestone, examples of which would be Reisner’s Types III and IV shafts (1942, p. 87).   The other basic type was a variety with the horizontal hall ending in a more elaborate burial chamber roofed with corbelled or simple slab stones, examples of which would be Reisner’s Type I and II shafts (1942, p. 87, general descriptions p. 5).

The three basic shaft types, a Type VII pit-type, a Type III with horizontal passage to an undressed burial chamber, and a Type I with a horizontal passage ending in a dressed burial chamber, from Reisner's "Necropolis," pp. 99, 89, and 88, respectively.

The three basic shaft types, a Type VII pit-type, a Type III with horizontal passage to an undressed burial chamber, and a Type I with a horizontal passage ending in a dressed burial chamber, from Reisner’s “Necropolis,” pp. 99, 89, and 88, respectively.

For more detail, we will consider the Type II, III, and IV mastabas of the Western Cemetery (see below for descriptions).  These mastabas had two-meter squared openings, and the part of the shaft that passed through the mastaba core was lined with the same type of stone as the outer walls.  In these types of mastabas, the vertical shaft took a horizontal turn to the south, leading to the burial chamber.  There were canopic pits in the southeast corner of the burial chamber floor, or canopic recessions cut into the southern wall. The coffin was aligned north-south against the western wall.  The earlier burial chambers were faced with white limestone, but did not have roofs.  Once the burial was completed, the chamber would be sealed with white limestone, a large portcullis block would be placed into southern wall of the shaft, which would then be the filled in with stone (Reisner, 1942, p. 85).   We will now take a look at how George Reisner classified mastabas.

 

Reisner’s Mastaba Type Index

George Reisner distinguished mastabas into a variety of types, based on their core and surface construction, as well as chapel and niche types and locations.  In this section, we will delineate his types of mastabas and the details that led him to define them as such.  These descriptions, except where otherwise noted, come from Reisner’s “A History of the Giza Necropolis:  Vol. 1,” pp 39-52.  

Mastaba Type Ia:  Filled core mastaba with a crude brick wall exterior, with rubble, rubbish, and sand filler for the interior.  In larger varieties, the interiors were sometimes divided into sections separated by crude brick walls, and filled in with rubble and sand.  The outer walls were coated with mud and then plastered over.

Mastaba Type Ib:  Filled core mastaba, may have a reworked massive core (Reisner, 1942, p. 158), with a crude brick wall exterior, with a solid interior consisting of crude bricks.  The outer walls were coated with mud and then plastered over.

Mastaba Type IIa:  Filled core mastaba, which could have been later enlarged with massive core work with white casing, otherwise, small drab stone block exterior in low-stepped tiers, filled with rubble and sand, slab stelae instead of niches, single burial shaft with the part extending through the mastaba lined with stones similar to the exterior blocks, to restrain the rubble and sand filler.  Regarding the chapel for this mastaba type, Reisner says they “have no offering-niche or recess in the valley face. The [crude brick] chapel is built against that face at the southern end where the chief niche is usually placed. It has an open recess in the west wall of the inner offering-room in which the stepped face of the core appears, and in this recess was seen the slab-stela which had been previously set in an emplacement cut in the retaining wall of the core” (1942, p. 187).

Mastaba Type IIa, G 1203, from Reisner, 1942, p. 39.

Mastaba Type IIa, G 1203, from Reisner, 1942, p. 39.

Mastaba Type IIb:  Uncertain of the mastaba core type, Reisner was not specific, but seems to meet the definition for a rubble core mastaba.  Some were later enlarged with massive core work with white casing.  Small rough stone block exterior in stepped tiers, with a solid interior of small stone blocks, and slab stelae instead of niches.  Regarding the chapel for this mastaba type, Reisner says they “have no offering-niche or recess in the valley face. The [crude brick] chapel is built against that face at the southern end where the chief niche is usually placed. It has an open recess in the west wall of the inner offering-room in which the stepped face of the core appears, and in this recess was seen the slab-stela which had been previously set in an emplacement cut in the retaining wall ofthe core” (1942, p. 187).

Mastaba Type III:  Massive core mastaba with external wall of large nummulitic limestone blocks in high-stepped courses, gravel and rubbish filled interior, however, interior may also contain large blocks.  The external wall is faced with smaller limestone blocks giving Type III mastabas an appearance similar to Types II a and b.  Some Type III mastabas have slab stelae.

Mastaba Type IIIi:  Massive core mastaba with no recess for interior chapel.

Mastaba Type IIIi, G 4140, from Reisner, 1942, p. 41.

Mastaba Type IIIi, G 4140, from Reisner, 1942, p. 41.

Mastaba Type IIIii:  Massive core mastaba with Interior chapel which may have been later dug out of the core and then shored up with large masonry and faced with small stepped-block courses.

Mastaba Type IV:  Massive core mastaba with external wall of large nummulitic limestone blocks in high-stepped courses, but lacking the smaller limestone facing blocks of Type III.  Some have slab stelae.  They are not cased, but Reisner figured they were originally intended to be (1942, p. 38)

Mastaba Type IVi:  Massive core mastaba with no recess for interior chapel.  Regarding the chapel for this mastaba type, Reisner says they “have no offering-niche or recess in the valley face. The [crude brick] chapel is built against that face at the southern end where the chief niche is usually placed. It has an open recess in the west wall of the inner offering-room in which the stepped face of the core appears, and in this recess was seen the slab-stela which had been previously set in an emplacement cut in the retaining wall of the core” (1942, p. 187).

Mastaba Type IVi, map of G 4240, with positions of G 4241 and G 4340, Photo ID HUMFA_EG020988, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba Type IVi, map of G 4240, with positions of G 4241 and G 4340, Photo ID HUMFA_EG020988, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba Type IVii:  Massive core mastaba with chapel recesses that were broken and subsequently reconstructed.

Mastaba Type IViii:  Massive core mastaba with recess for interior chapel built into the core.

Mastaba Type IViv:  Massive core mastaba where the casing has been extended southwards to facilitate an internal chapel.

Mastaba Type V:  Filled core mastaba with nummulitic block for structural purposes, a dual wall retainer with faced with a smooth white limestone constructed on a sloping surface, with inner walls of nummulitic limestone, filled as the walls went up.   Interior chapel faced in white smooth limestone (Type III Chapel).  Their L-shaped chapels typically had an entrance in the northern end of the eastern mastaba wall, with a single offering niche at the south end of the western wall, making it impossible to see the niche from the outside, unlike other interior chapels (Reisner, 1942, p. 8).

KWC07A-020 Mastaba Type V, G 7050, from Reisner, 1942, p. 48.

KWC07A-020 Mastaba Type V, G 7050, from Reisner, 1942, p. 48.

Mastaba Type VI:  Filled core mastaba with nummulitic block surface, set to a slope, filled with rubble or large blocks.  This type of mastaba had a subsidiary northern niche, and a Type III interior chapel, as with mastaba Type V (see above).

Mastaba Type VIa:  Filled core mastaba with large nummulitic block surface, set to a slope, filled with rubbish or large blocks, 2 2m burial shafts.  Interior Type III chapel and subsidiary northern niche.

Mastaba Type VIa, G 7550, from Reisner, 1942, p. 49.

Mastaba Type VIa, G 7550, from Reisner, 1942, p. 49.

Mastaba Type VIb:  Filled core mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses (type Z masonry).  Interior Type III chapel and subsidiary northern niche.

Mastaba Type VIc: Filled core mastaba constructed of either small nummulitic block masonry, sloping but not stepped, or small nummulitic block masonry in sloping stepped courses (type U masonry).  May also be small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Interior Type III chapel and subsidiary northern niche.

Mastaba Type VId:  Filled core mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses, with rubble facing plastered with mud.  Interior Type III chapel and subsidiary northern niche.

Mastaba Type VIe:  Filled core mastaba built with retaining walls of crude brick, or wall of rubble core with crude brick on one or both faces, or may be a solid crude brick mastaba.  Interior Type III chapel and subsidiary northern niche.

Mastaba Type VII:  Could be filled or core mastabas  with Type IV Chapels.

Mastaba Type VIIa:  Sloping exterior wall of large nummulitic blocks, with Type IV interior chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIb:  Mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses (type Z masonry), with Type IV interior chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIb, G 1020, from Reisner, 1942, p. 50.

Mastaba Type VIIb, G 1020, from Reisner, 1942, p. 50.

Mastaba Type VIIc:  Constructed of either small nummulitic block masonry, sloping but not stepped, or small nummulitic block masonry in sloping stepped courses (type U masonry).  May also be small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Type IV interior chapel.

Mastaba Type VIId:  Exterior wall with rubble face, with Type IV interior chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIe:  Constructed of crude brick, with Type IV interior chapel.

Mastaba Type VIII: Reisner is not specific regarding core type, but based on the labelling of illustrations, appears to be a filled core mastaba (c.f. 1942, p. 51).  They may have interior chapels of Type V, VI, or VII.  

Mastaba Type VIIIa:  Constructed of grey nummulitic blocks, with a Type V, VI, or VII chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIIb:  Mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses, sometimes with two layers of walls with rubble filling the space between them (type Z masonry).  Type V, VI, or VII chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIIc:  Constructed of either small nummulitic block masonry, sloping but not stepped, or small nummulitic block masonry in sloping stepped courses (type U masonry).  May also be small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Type V, VI, or VII chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIIc, G 1029, from Reisner, 1942, p. 51.

Mastaba Type VIIIc, G 1029, from Reisner, 1942, p. 51.

Mastaba Type VIIId:  Built of rubble-faced surfaces, with Type V, VI, or VII chapel.

Mastaba Type VIIIe:  Constructed of crude brick, with Type Type V, VI, or VII chapel.

Mastaba Type IX:  Mastabas with Type IX exterior chapels, see below for different types.

Mastaba Type IXa:  Constructed with nummulitic limestone slabs, with a Type VIII exterior chapel.

Mastaba Type IXb: Mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses (type Z masonry). Type VIII exterior chapel.

Mastaba Type IXc:  May be built with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses, (type Z masonry). Some examples are constructed of small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Type VIII exterior chapel.

Mastaba Type IXd:  A mastaba with a rubble-faced core and a Type VIII exterior chapel.

Mastaba Type IXe:  A crude brick mastaba with a Type VIII exterior chapel.

Mastaba Type X:  A mastaba with niches and an open air chapel of Type IX.  The Type IX Chapels could be class a (two niches in the east facade), b (two or more pairs of niches in the facade), or c (abnormal niche work).

Mastaba Type Xa:  Built of nummulitic blocks with open air Type IX a, b, or c, chapel.

Mastaba Type Xb:  Mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses (type Z masonry).  Open air Type IX a, b, or c, chapel.

Mastaba Type Xc:  Constructed of either small nummulitic block masonry, sloping but not stepped, or small nummulitic block masonry in sloping stepped courses (type U masonry).  May also be  small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Open air Type IX a, b, or c,  chapel.

Mastaba Type Xd:  A mastaba built of rubble plastered with mud, with an open air Type IX a, b, or c, chapel.

Mastaba Type Xe:  Constructed of crude brick, with an open air Type IX a, b, or c, chapel.

Mastaba Type XI:  A mastaba with an open air Type IX chapel of the d class, which Reisner describes as  having no niches, or at least, none preserved (1942, p. 186).  Otherwise, the Mastaba Type XI chapels conform to the chapel Type IX.

Mastaba Type XIa:  Constructed of nummulitic blocks, with an open air Type IX d chapel.

Mastaba Type IXa G 5230 (aka: Lepsius 40), remains of plaster floor between west (the mastaba) and northern chapel chapel (serdab), looking north-northeast, photo ID HUMFA_C6927P_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba Type IXa G 5230 (aka: Lepsius 40), remains of plaster floor between west (the mastaba) and northern chapel chapel (serdab), looking north-northeast, photo ID HUMFA_C6927P_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Mastaba Type XIb:  Mastaba with small nummulitic blocks set to shallow, stepped, sloping courses, (type Z masonry).  Open air Type IX d chapel.

Mastaba Type XIc:  Constructed of either small nummulitic block masonry, sloping but not stepped, or small nummulitic block masonry in sloping stepped courses (type U masonry).  May also be  small blocks of nummulitic limestone with smooth, sloping courses in narrow steps (type ZU masonry).  Open air Type IX d chapel.

Mastaba Type XId:  A mastaba built of rubble plastered with mud, with an open air Type IX d chapel.

Mastaba Type XIe:   Constructed of crude brick, with an open air Type IX d chapel.

 

Now that we have taken a more detailed look at what mastabas are, and how Reisner defined them, let us proceed with our first installment of mastabas from the George Reisner-Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Expedition into the Western Cemetery.  As with all articles in the Khufu’s Western Cemetery series, this article is a humble tribute to the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza (http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/).  

Digital Giza is still a work in progress, so if you have trouble, at least for now, the original online Giza Archives (http://www.gizapyramids.org/) is still available.  The intention of this series is not only to educate and promote interest in the Old Kingdom Western Cemetery, but to drive people to explore the voluminous Giza Archives.  For Old Kingdom aficionados, it is a home away from home, accessible in your home at home.  Let us now take a look at a selection of mastabas from Cemeteries G 1600, G2000, and G 2100 of the Western Field (Works Cited at the bottom of the article).

 

Cemeteries G 1600, G2000, and G2100

Cemetery G 1600, Reisner Harvard-Boston Expedition  (Porter and Moss, p. 65, some missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 1607  Ian – Royal Acquaintance, Overseer of the House of Weavers of the Royal Children.  Wife Neferhanesut (Royal Acquaintance).  Son Serib depicted as young boy.

Rock-cut tomb, possibly late Fourth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 1607, Ian, chapel, looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_B8349_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1607, Ian, chapel, looking south. Photo ID HUMFA_B8349_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1607, Ian, chapel, western wall, inscribed architrave above niches, southern part (seated figures of Ian and Nefery at southern end), looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7236_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1607, Ian, chapel, western wall, inscribed architrave above niches, southern part (seated figures of Ian and Nefery at southern end), looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7236_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 1673 Qednes – Royal Acquaintance, Elder of the Judicial Court of the Pyramid of Khufu, Secretary of Judgements.  Wife Niankhhathor – Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor.  Limestone scribe statue also found, Irsetmu – Inspector of Ka-priests – relation uncertain.

Stone-built mastaba, Fifth to Sixth Dynasties.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 1673, Qednes, chapel (corridor along eastern face of mastaba), false door inscribed for [qdns] Qednes and his wife [njanxHwtHr] Niankhhathor, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A6931_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1673, Qednes, chapel (corridor along eastern face of mastaba), false door inscribed for [qdns] Qednes and his wife [njanxHwtHr] Niankhhathor, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A6931_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1673 a, chapel (corridor along eastern face of mastaba), statues (32-4-18 in Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 60547, Irsetmu, 32-4-19 in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 34.51) in situ in front of false door inscribed for Qednes and his wife Niankhhathor, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_B8192_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 1673 a, chapel (corridor along eastern face of mastaba), statues (32-4-18 in Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 60547, Irsetmu, 32-4-19 in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 34.51) in situ in front of false door inscribed for Qednes and his wife Niankhhathor, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_B8192_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Cemetery G 2000, Reisner Harvard-Boston Expedition  (Porter and Moss, pp. 66-70, some missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 2001 Tjetu (1) Kanisut – Overseer of the Pyramid-town of Khufu, Inspector of Wab-priests of the Pyramid of Khufu, Royal Chamberlain of the Great House, Sole Companion, Lector-priest, Overseer of the Palace Attendants.  Wife Wadjethetep (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Neith, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore).  Ipi, daughter of Wadjethetep (no titles), mother (or possibly another wife), Nebet (Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore), Ipi, daughter of Nebet (no titles), Idu, daughter of Nebet (no titles), Eldest son Tjetu Mesni (Lector-priest), other son, Meru (Lector-priest), possibly other son, Mesni Tjetu (Royal Chamberlain of the Great House), Tjetu’s brothers, Niankhkhufu (Noble of the King, Steward), Iri (no titles), Ipy (no titles), Ikeri (no titles)  Also attested (relation unknown), Tjetu Kanisut (Lector-priest), Imapepi (Lector-priest), Henti (female, Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor).  

Stone-built mastaba, Fifth through Sixth Dynasties.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2001, Tjetu, chapel (pillared portico), looking south-southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B1509_NS (Image also known as B7795_NS),photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2001, Tjetu, chapel (pillared portico), looking south-southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B1509_NS (Image also known as B7795_NS),photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2001, Tjetu, chapel (pillared portico), southwest corner, painted relief (Tjetu seated at offering table on southern wall, Nebet seated at offering table on western wall), looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B1512_NS (Image also known as B7798_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2001, Tjetu, chapel (pillared portico), southwest corner, painted relief (Tjetu seated at offering table on southern wall, Nebet seated at offering table on western wall), looking southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B1512_NS (Image also known as B7798_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2009 Mesi –  Palace Attendant.  Wife Sesesekh (Priestess of Hathor in All Her Places, Palace Attendant).  Also attested, Semerka (Palace Attendant), Ptahneferti (statue of young boy, only title is Craftsman), Khnumu (Palace Attendant), limestone triad statue found in the serdab, depicting Hes (Palace Attendant of the Great House), Khuiptah (Palace Attendant of the Great House), and Nikaukhufu (Palace Attendant of the Great House), Bau (Palace Attendant), Baru, wife of Bau (Priestess of Neith Opener-of-the-Ways, Palace Attendant).  

Stone-built mastaba, middle Fifth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2009, offering room, false door in front of serdab, offering basins (Museum of Fine Arts Boston acc. no. 06.1884, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 38674) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C1525_NS (Image also known as C12072_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2009, offering room, false door in front of serdab, offering basins (Museum of Fine Arts Boston acc. no. 06.1884, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 38674) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C1525_NS (Image also known as C12072_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2009, serdab, roofing removed, statues (standing pair statue are in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 38670, seated pair statue is in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 06.1885, and the triad is likewise in the Museum of Fine Arts, acc. no. MFA 06.1882) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C1249_NS (Image also known as C12101_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2009, serdab, roofing removed, statues (standing pair statue are in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, acc. no. JE 38670, seated pair statue is in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 06.1885, and the triad is likewise in the Museum of Fine Arts, acc. no. MFA 06.1882) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_C1249_NS (Image also known as C12101_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2032  Senenu – Wab-priest of Re, Sealer of the Royal Shespet-cloth, Royal Acquaintance of the Great House.   Wife Niankhmafdet (Royal Acquaintance), sons Redienptah (Judge) and Ankhemtjenenet Ineb ( Juridical Inspector of Scribes, Secretary of Judgements).  Attested – Irienre (owner of G 2033, Secretary of Judgements, Overseer of Ka-priests, Juridical Letter Carrier).  

Stone-built mastaba, end of Fifth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

108 Space between G 2032 (to north, left) and G 2006 and G 2007 (to south, right), looking east. Photo ID HUMFA_C989_NS (Image also known as C12123_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

108 Space between G 2032 (to north, left) and G 2006 and G 2007 (to south, right), looking east. Photo ID HUMFA_C989_NS (Image also known as C12123_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door of Senenu originally from G 2032 (found in corridor between G 2032 and G 2034; tablet depicts Senenu seated at offering table with his son Irienre presenting offering; also depicted: Niankhmafdet (wife, south jamb upper register), Ankhemtjenenet (son, north jamb upper register), Redienptah (son, north jamb lower register), Irienre (son, south jamb lower register). Photo ID HUMFA_A5823_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

False door of Senenu originally from G 2032 (found in corridor between G 2032 and G 2034; tablet depicts Senenu seated at offering table with his son Irienre presenting offering; also depicted: Niankhmafdet (wife, south jamb upper register), Ankhemtjenenet (son, north jamb upper register), Redienptah (son, north jamb lower register), Irienre (son, south jamb lower register). Photo ID HUMFA_A5823_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2041  Senenuka Keki – Royal Acquaintance, Overseer of the Pyramid-Town of Khufu, Director of Royal Wab-priests, Royal Document Scribe, Overseer of Works, Administrator of a Settlement.  Wife Iti (Royal Acquaintance)  Daughters Akhetemhenut (Royal Acquaintance, Royal Ornament) and Nubheset (Royal Acquaintance).  Attested: Ini (Ka-priest), relation unknown.  

Stone-built mastaba, early to mid Fifth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2041, [GLYPHS] Senenuka, chapel, western wall (Museum of Fine Arts acc. no.s MFA 07.1000, MFA 07.1001, MFA 07.1003, MFA 07.1004, and MFA 07.1005) during excavation, looking west (railroad track for debris removal in the background). Photo ID HUMFA_A487P_NS (Image also known as A5964_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2041, [GLYPHS] Senenuka, chapel, western wall (Museum of Fine Arts acc. no.s MFA 07.1000, MFA 07.1001, MFA 07.1003, MFA 07.1004, and MFA 07.1005) during excavation, looking west (railroad track for debris removal in the background). Photo ID HUMFA_A487P_NS (Image also known as A5964_NS), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief with figure of Senenuka seated at offering table and ka-priest Ini offering haunch of meat from G 2041, Senenuka, chapel, western wall: part of nine fitting blocks of relief, currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston (acc. no.s MFA 07.1000, MFA 07.1001, MFA 07.1003, MFA 07.1004, and MFA 07.1005). Photo ID HUMFA_A98_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief with figure of Senenuka seated at offering table and ka-priest Ini offering haunch of meat from G 2041, Senenuka, chapel, western wall: part of nine fitting blocks of relief, currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston (acc. no.s MFA 07.1000, MFA 07.1001, MFA 07.1003, MFA 07.1004, and MFA 07.1005). Photo ID HUMFA_A98_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2088 Kakhent – Inspector of Palace Attendants, … of the Great House, Inspector of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Royal Acquaintance.  Co-owner, and son of Kakhent, Pehenptah (Overseer of the Department of Palace Attendants of the Great House, Inspector of Palace Attendants of the Great House).  […]khu, son or daughter of Kakhent (is depicted playing harp, mostly female profession at this time.   Seteskau other daughter playing harp.  Akhmes (Ka-priest) depicted with female figures, Nefretinet and Ankhmaes (Ka-priestess), on servant statue. Niankhhathor (possible daughter) Nefretser, grand daughter of Kakhent’s eldest daughter.  Also attested, Hetepenes in statue of brewer, Katjesu (fragment of servant), Neferkhennisut (fragment of statue, no titles), Nenankh (Ka-priest), Neni (fragmentary Statue of Ka-priestess), servant statue Setimu.  

Stone-built mastaba, Fourth or Fifth Dynasties.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2088, Kakhent and Pehenptah, outside serdab 2 in court (room c), fragments of servant and other statues (38-4-2 currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo [acc. no. JE 72139]; statues 38-4-1 [acc. no. MFA 38.2146], 38-4-3 [acc. no. MFA 38.2147], 38-4-7 [acc. no. MFA 38.2149], 38-4-8, 38-4-9 [acc. no. MFA 38.2150], 38-4-11 [acc. no. MFA 38.2151], 38-4-17 [acc. no. MFA 38.2155], and 38-4-19 [acc. no. MFA 38.2157] are all currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7981_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2088, Kakhent and Pehenptah, outside serdab 2 in court (room c), fragments of servant and other statues (38-4-2 currently in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo [acc. no. JE 72139]; statues 38-4-1 [acc. no. MFA 38.2146], 38-4-3 [acc. no. MFA 38.2147], 38-4-7 [acc. no. MFA 38.2149], 38-4-8, 38-4-9 [acc. no. MFA 38.2150], 38-4-11 [acc. no. MFA 38.2151], 38-4-17 [acc. no. MFA 38.2155], and 38-4-19 [acc. no. MFA 38.2157] are all currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston) in situ, looking west. Photo ID HUMFA_A7981_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2088, sunk relief standing male figure on ashlars facing back of portico, north of doorway, looking west; since figure is oriented facing into chapel, it probably represents Pehenptah, son of Kakhent. Photo ID HUMFA_A8063A_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2088, sunk relief standing male figure on ashlars facing back of portico, north of doorway, looking west; since figure is oriented facing into chapel, it probably represents Pehenptah, son of Kakhent. Photo ID HUMFA_A8063A_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

Cemetery G 2100, Reisner Harvard-Boston Expedition, some excavations by Hermann Junker as well  (Porter and Moss, pp. 70-83), some missing info filled in from the Giza Archives Project)

G 2100-I  Merib Kapunisut – Expedition Leader, Director of the Palace, Administrator of the Fleet, Mouth of every Butite, Greatest of seers in Iunu, Priest of Khufu, king’s Son, God’s Sealer of the Ship, Sole Companion, Inspector of (the Ship).  Sons Khufumernetjeru (Eldest Son of Merib Kapunesut, Royal Acquaintance), and Merib-nedjes (Royal Acquaintance).  Daughters Nensedjerkai (see G 2100-II) and  Sednet.  Also attested, Ishi (Supervisor of Linen), relation unknown.  

Stone-built mastaba, Fourth or early Fifth Dynasties.  Excavated by Karl Lepsius, re-excavated by George Reisner.

G 2100-I annex (aka, Lepsius 24), start of excavation of northern niche, looking west-southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B788_NS (Image also known as B7425_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2100-I annex (aka, Lepsius 24), start of excavation of northern niche, looking west-southwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B788_NS (Image also known as B7425_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Scan of black and white glass plate/archival photo; detail of blocks from the chapel of G 2100-I (Merib Kapunisut), façade. Photo ID BÄM_1107_Priese_con_001 (original plate no. BÄM_1107), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Scan of black and white glass plate/archival photo; detail of blocks from the chapel of G 2100-I (Merib Kapunisut), façade. Photo ID BÄM_1107_Priese_con_001 (original plate no. BÄM_1107), photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2100-II  Nensedjerkai I – Daughter of Merib Kapunesut (g 2100-I), King’s Daughter, Royal Ornament, Priestess of Hathor, Priestess of Khufu,  King’s Daughter.  Father Merib Kapunesut (see G 2100-I).  Also attested, Niptah Khuwiptah (Overseer of Carpenters of the Is-chamber of the Palace, Ka-priest),  Peseshet, (wife of Niptah Khuwiptah, Royal Acquaintance, Priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Deserts and Beautiful Cult-Places).  Ka-priests named, Defdi, Mery, Niankhkhnum, Niptah, Werbauptah, Rahetep, Werka, and […]ankh].  

Stone-built mastaba, Fifth Dynasty.  Excavated by George Reisner and Hermann Junker.

G 2100-II, looking west. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0662, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2100-II, looking west. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0662, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2100-II, Nensedjerkai, chapel, pillared portico, northern pillar, western face, relief (standing figures of Merib and Nensedjerkai), looking east. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0151, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2100-II, Nensedjerkai, chapel, pillared portico, northern pillar, western face, relief (standing figures of Merib and Nensedjerkai), looking east. Photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0151, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

 

G 2110  Nefer – Strong-of-Voice (of the Judiciary), Chief of the Estate, Overseer of Scribes of the Portfolios of the King, Secretary of the King in All Places, Scribe of the Great House, Overseer of all Royal Ornaments, Director of Crews of Recruits, Overseer of the Two Places of Provisions, Overseer of the House of Weapons, Great one of the Tens of Upper Egypt, Royal Acquaintance, Overseer of the Two Treasuries, Overseer of Scribes of the Crews, Royal Document Scrib.  Also attested, Muti (Royal Acquaintance) and Khentikauf (Scribe).  Attested Ka-priests: Ankh, Ari, Iperi, Iymery, Kairi, Khuenptah, Mesi, Nefermeket, and Nefershemem.  

Stone-built mastaba, late Fourth or early Fifth Dynasties.  Excavated by George Reisner.

G 2110, exterior chapel, looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B8856_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

G 2110, exterior chapel, looking northwest. Photo ID HUMFA_B8856_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief (standing figure of Nefer, inscription, and four scribes identified as Nefru, Weni, Khentikauf, Senenuka) from northern door jamb from G 2110, [GLYPHS] Nefer. Currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 07.1002. Photo ID HUMFA_A93_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Block of relief (standing figure of Nefer, inscription, and four scribes identified as Nefru, Weni, Khentikauf, Senenuka) from northern door jamb from G 2110, [GLYPHS] Nefer. Currently in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, acc. no. MFA 07.1002. Photo ID HUMFA_A93_NS, photo and description courtesy of the Giza Archives maintained by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, online at Digital Giza.

Previous articles in this series:

Sources

Adams, Barbara, and Krzystof.  Protodynastic Egypt.  Buckinghamshire:Shire Publications, 1997.

Friedman, Renee.  “Hierakonpolis.”  In Before the Pyramids.  Emily Teeter, ed.  Chicago:The Oriental Institute, 2011.  Pp. 33-44.

Manuelian, Peter Der. “A Re-examination of Reisner’s Nucleus Cemetery Concept at Giza. Preliminary Remarks on Cemetery G 2100.” In Miroslav Bárta, ed. The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology. Proceedings of the Conference held in Prague, May 31-June 4, 2004.Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, 2006, pp. 221-233.  Online:  http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/275/full/   

Manuelian, Peter Der. Mastabas of Nucleus Cemetery G 2100. Giza Mastabas 8. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 2009.  Online:  http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/566/full/

Perrot, Georges, and Charles Chipiez.  A History of Art in Ancient Egypt: Vol. 1.  Sir Walter Armstrong, translator.  New York:Armstrong and Son, 1883.  Online: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40144/40144-h/40144-h.htm#Fig_107

Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974. Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/95/intro/

Reisner, George A. “The History of the Egyptian Mastaba.” In Mélanges Maspero 1. Mémoires de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire 66. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 1934, pp. 579-584.  Online:  http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf_library/reisner_mel_maspero1934.pdf

Reisner, George A. A History of the Giza Necropolis 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942.  Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/128/intro/

Reisner, George A. and Clarence S. Fisher. “Preliminary Report on the Work of the Harvard-Boston Expedition in 1911-13.” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte13 (1914), pp. 227-252.  Online:  http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/129/intro/.

 

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Copyright Keith Payne, 2117.  Any copyrighted images used are used in conformity with the Fair Use clause of copyright law.  Em Hotep is for educational and scholarly discussion purposes, no advertising or profits are derived from this work.

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This entry was posted on Saturday, October 21st, 2017 at 3:50 pm and is filed under Old Kingdom, The Giza Plateau, Tombs. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

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