14
Jun

Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part 2: The Nucleus Cemeteries

   Posted by: Keith Payne   

Categories: Old Kingdom, Tombs


We introduced the subject of Khufu’s Western Cemetery in the last article of this series. Before we can begin an organized delve into the mastabas themselves, we first need to understand a couple of key concepts. We need to know about the nucleus cemeteries and how they expanded into the necropolis we seek to study (the subject of this article), and how the Western Cemetery was carved up into concessions (the subject of the next article). So, how did the Western Cemetery evolve?

Khufu’s Western Cemetery Part 2: The Nucleus Cemeteries

General Plan of Cemetery G 4000: surveyed and drawn by Alexander Floroff, traced by Nicholas Melnikoff, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_EG020974.

General Plan of Cemetery G 4000: surveyed and drawn by Alexander Floroff, traced by Nicholas Melnikoff, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_EG020974.

Western cemetery: eastern half (including cemetery G 4000), general view, looking north from Khafre's Pyramid, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A2072_NS.

Western cemetery: eastern half (including cemetery G 4000), general view, looking north from Khafre’s Pyramid, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A2072_NS.

George Reisner’s concept of the nucleus cemeteries (sometimes called “core cemeteries”) is based on what he determined to be the earliest and primary clusters of mastabas in the Western Cemetery, with additional mastabas being added later. Peter Der Manuelian notes that Reisner never specifically referred (in published works) to nucleus, or core, cemeteries, during his lifetime. However, Manuelian points out that the concept plays a major role in Reisner’s posthumously-published “History of the Giza Necropolis” (Manuelian, p. 221), and a reading of that work shows that the idea of nucleus cemeteries clearly figured centrally to how Reisner understood the development of the necropolis.

Cemetery G 1200: General view, main street, after excavation, looking west across cemetery G 1100 from top of G 2000 (Lepsius 23) (north end of G 1020, foreground left), Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6123_NS.

Cemetery G 1200: General view, main street, after excavation, looking west across cemetery G 1100 from top of G 2000 (Lepsius 23) (north end of G 1020, foreground left), Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6123_NS.

Tracing by Nicholas Melnikoff of Alexander Floroff's map of Cemetery G 1200, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A8000_NS.

Tracing by Nicholas Melnikoff of Alexander Floroff’s map of Cemetery G 1200, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A8000_NS.

Reisner’s nucleus cemeteries consisted of Cemetery G 1200, Cemetery G 2100, Cemetery G 4000, and the cemetery that adjoined those of G 2100 and G 4000, which he called the Echelon Cemetery. Reisner also noted the importance of a large mastaba, G 2000, about halfway between Cemeteries G 1200 and G 2100, as being significant to how the Western Cemetery as a whole would later develop (Reisner, pp. 13-14). As Khufu’s Pyramid arose, so did the pre-built elite mastabas, and an opportunity to have such an honor bestowed upon one’s self and one’s family – a swanky place to spend the afterlife with the Pharaoh – must have created both envy and ambition in the court, not to mention loyalty to the pharaoh. Later, once the core cemeteries were established, similar hopes would have led to the ancillary burials and cemeteries which would follow.

Block of limestone relief scene from G 2175, depicting tomb of Khnumnefer, his wife Ankhesenptah(?) and three children, Menkaure-weser, Hepetka, and Nikauneith, with procession of dancing girls and offering bearers; contains, on right, front of row of dancing girls, and, on left, finely-detailed hieroglyphs giving name of tomb owner's son, Menkaure-weser; executed in fine low raised relief. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID MFAB_12.1512.6.

Block of limestone relief scene from G 2175, depicting tomb of Khnumnefer, his wife Ankhesenptah(?) and three children, Menkaure-weser, Hepetka, and Nikauneith, with procession of dancing girls and offering bearers; contains, on right, front of row of dancing girls, and, on left, finely-detailed hieroglyphs giving name of tomb owner’s son, Menkaure-weser; executed in fine low raised relief. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID MFAB_12.1512.6.

Western Cemetery necropolis street view: G 2100, G 2100-I, G 2017, G 2024, G 2016, G 2020. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_37-10-5.

Western Cemetery necropolis street view: G 2100, G 2100-I, G 2017, G 2024, G 2016, G 2020. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_37-10-5.

We will now turn to more properly defining the four nucleus cemeteries. Cemetery G 1200 consists of ten stepped mastabas in three east-to-west rows. We can use the mastaba of Hemiunu (G 4000), Khufu’s master architect responsible for the Great Pyramid and the Western Cemetery, for purposes of orientation. Cemetery G 1200 is about 100 m. northwest of G 4000. Cemetery G 2100 can be defined by eleven step mastabas – five on the western half, and six on the east, and is located about 185 m. north of G 4000. Cemetery G 4000 is directly to the east of the mastaba that gives it its name, and is comprised of 42 mastabas in six rows running east to west – five stepped mastabas with solid crude block cores, two large mastabas with small-stepped exteriors, 34 massive core mastabas, and 1 small stepped mastaba with a rubble core. The Echelon Cemetery has three rows of mastabas running north to south. The western and middle rows both consist of nine stepped mastabas with rubble-filled cores, and the eastern row has seven mastabas of the same construction (Reisner, pp. 13-14). G 4000 happens to be where the largely intact statue of Hemiunu was discovered, shown below in situ.

G 4000, Hemiunu, corridor chapel, serdab behind northern niche, seated statue of Hemiunu (Hildesheim 1962) in situ, looking west, photo by Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_Aeos_I_5164.

G 4000, Hemiunu, corridor chapel, serdab behind northern niche, seated statue of Hemiunu (Hildesheim 1962) in situ, looking west, photo by Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_Aeos_I_5164.

Map of Cemetery en Echelon, one of the nucleus cemeteries, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_EG000499.

Map of Cemetery en Echelon, one of the nucleus cemeteries, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_EG000499.

The earliest of the later mastabas were added for the families and important associates of the elite whose tombs made up the nucleus cemeteries, and the Western Cemetery’s city-block layout was mostly respected. The necropolis experienced further growth in the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, some reasons for which will discuss below. For now, it is enough to know that the growth of the nucleus cemeteries resulted in the many sub-cemeteries that clog the previously wide open avenues and created the necropolis as it is today.

Cemetery G 2100 - area east of G 2170, and north of G 2180/G 4990: G 2231 X, G 2227 (= G 2177), G 2224, G 2225, G 2174, G 2173, G 2176, G 2175, G 2172, G 2179, G 2178, G 2186, G 2184, looking south from photographic tower, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID A821P_ann_NS.

Cemetery G 2100 – area east of G 2170, and north of G 2180/G 4990: G 2231 X, G 2227 (= G 2177), G 2224, G 2225, G 2174, G 2173, G 2176, G 2175, G 2172, G 2179, G 2178, G 2186, G 2184, looking south from photographic tower, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID A821P_ann_NS.

Western cemetery: general view, including cemeteries G 4000, G 5000, G 2300, and G 2100, looking west-northwest from Khufu pyramid, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A1080_NS.

Western cemetery: general view, including cemeteries G 4000, G 5000, G 2300, and G 2100, looking west-northwest from Khufu pyramid, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A1080_NS.

To expand on the concept of the nucleus cemetery, Peter Der Manuelian chose Cemetery G 2100 because this particular cemetery “provides examples of almost every typical problem set found in the Giza cemeteries, with the exception of rock-cut tombs. It is thus a microcosm for many of the archaeological issues concerning the entire Giza Necropolis” (Manuelian, P. 221). G 2100 had first been explored by Karl Lepsius (it was originally numbered as Lepsius 24) in December, 1842. Lepsius gained permission to remove the walls of its chapel and face, but as a precaution, Lepsius’ artist (J. J. Frey) had prepared an exact set of watercolor pigments based on the walls in situ, which was fortunate, as most of the coloring disappeared in the process of transferal to Berlin. Having an authentic set of pigments, restorers were able to create a detailed and accurate plaster reproduction of the chapel walls, an undertaking which took place between 1982-84 (Manuelian, 2006, p. 222). Work at G 2100 resumed in 1905 with the Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston Expedition, under the leadership of George Reisner. Part of the G 2100 complex fell within the German Mission’s concession, thus, Hermann Junker had the privilege of clearing the the three major mastabas of the cemetery – G 2100-II (Nersedjerkai), G 2135 (owner not known at this point), and G 2155 (Kaninisut I), along with the very decorative chapel of Kahif, G 2136 (Manuelian, 2006, p. 223).

h04 - General Plan of Cemetery G 2100, adapted from Reisner's Giza Necropolis I, Map 5. originally drawn by Ruth Bigio, adapted for this article from Manuelian, 2006, p. 224.

h04 – General Plan of Cemetery G 2100, adapted from Reisner’s Giza Necropolis I, Map 5. originally drawn by Ruth Bigio, adapted for this article from Manuelian, 2006, p. 224.

Cemetery G 2100: G 2136, Kahif, chapel, eastern wall, relief (detail, agricultural scenes, harvesting), looking east. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5502_1

Cemetery G 2100: G 2136, Kahif, chapel, eastern wall, relief (detail, agricultural scenes, harvesting), looking east. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5502_1.

Reisner identified an earlier western half of Cemetery G 2100, and a later eastern half, each part consisting of two north-to-south rows of tombs. Altogether, there are thirteen major tombs, and a collection of lesser burials in G 2100. Ten of the original eleven mastabas consist of a rubble-filled core, encased within regularly cut limestone blocks, arranged in stepped courses. The part of the burial shaft which passed through the rubble was likewise walled by regular limestone masonry. They were fitted with slab-stelae, which may have been a temporary focal point for offerings and rituals, with the intention of adding a regular false door at a later date. Evidence of this can be found with G 2110, Nefer, which had a layer of finished casing stones and an annex to the north, formed from the finer-grade limestone of the facing stones, which created an enclosed chapel attached to the mastaba containing a false door. Seshatsekhentiu, (G 2120) covered his slab stela with his casing stone, and added a stone exterior chapel with a false door. Later evidence suggests that G 2110 (Nefer) may have also bricked in his slab stela, replacing it with a false door when he added an exterior stone chapel with a false door. (Manuelian, 2006, p. 225-7.

H06 Limestone slab stela of Seshatsekhentiu; in many fragments, incomplete, restored with plaster in 1935. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID MFAB_06.1894.

H06 Limestone slab stela of Seshatsekhentiu; in many fragments, incomplete, restored with plaster in 1935. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID MFAB_06.1894.

G 2100: G 2100, eastern face, emplacement for slab stela, looking west. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_C857_NS.

G 2100: G 2100, eastern face, emplacement for slab stela, looking west. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_C857_NS.

As further evidence that nucleus cemeteries were expanded by later additions, which resulted in the sprawling necropolis we see today, Manuelian points out that the older mastabas (G 2100, G 2110, G 2120, G 2130, and G 2210) had a T-shaped groove to help secure a portcullis over the burials. This was standard in earlier mastabas, such as those at Meidum and Dashur, but in the Western Cemetery, only these five burial shafts conform to this tradition. In later burials, such as the eastern half of Cemetery G 2100, this convention disappears. The presence of these T-shaped shaft grooves may have been a holdover from the workers employed by Khufu’s father. Snefru. As these craftsmen died, retired, or were otherwise replaced, the T-groove went with them (Manuelian 2006, p 226-7).

Cemetery G 2100: shaft of G 2100 A, before clearing, showing portcullis grooves, looking north. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_B671_NS.

Cemetery G 2100: shaft of G 2100 A, before clearing, showing portcullis grooves, looking north. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_B671_NS.

G 2100: G 2100 A, filling in shaft, looking down into shaft to northeast. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_C1671_NS.

G 2100: G 2100 A, filling in shaft, looking down into shaft to northeast. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_C1671_NS.

Additional evidence of the gradual “sprawl” of these nucleus cemeteries was the addition of family members who would cluster around a relative who had been granted one of the original mastabas. Manuelian points out that in the southwestern corner of Cemetery G 2100, additions were made to the mastaba of Merib (G 2100-I) was both added to an earlier mastaba, and had a later mastaba added to his own. G 2100-I envelops the the southern end of mastaba G 2100, the tomb of his mother, Sedit. The layout of the construction clearly suggests G 2100 predates G 2100-I. Likewise, Merib’s daughter, Nensedjerkai (G 2100-II) added her own mastaba to that of her father. These family additions to mastaba G 2100 manifest architectural evidence that the nucleus Cemetery of G 2100 was stretched to the southwest, and likewise show that the Western Cemetery was still growing in the Fifth Dynasty (Manuelian, 2006, P. 227). These sorts of family complexes and ancillary tombs helped expand the nucleus cemeteries into the large cemetery now generally known as Khufu’s Western Cemetery.

Cemetery G 2100: G 2100 and G 2100-I annex, eastern face, cleared to area of G 2100-I annex (Lepsius 24) northern niche, pits associated with G 2114 and G 2105 in street to east, looking south-southwest. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A511_NS.

Cemetery G 2100: G 2100 and G 2100-I annex, eastern face, cleared to area of G 2100-I annex (Lepsius 24) northern niche, pits associated with G 2114 and G 2105 in street to east, looking south-southwest. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A511_NS.

G 2100-II (abutting southern end of G 2100-I) tomb number: originally numbered G 2101, renumbered G 2100-II. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0672.

G 2100-II (abutting southern end of G 2100-I) tomb number: originally numbered G 2101, renumbered G 2100-II. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_o_neg_nr_0672.

The desire to be entombed near one’s loved ones could very well be at the center of the growth of the nucleus cemeteries. Later, more modest burials pushed the boundaries of the nucleus cemeteries away from their cores and toward the perimeters of the other growing cores. As another example of expanding a core cemetery in order to be with one’s family, Manuelian points to the relatively small mastaba, G 2156, squeezed in next to G 2155, to allow Kaninisut II (G 2156) to be directly attached to his father, Kaninisut I (Manuelian, 2006, P. 229). Then again, as the temporal real estate became too crowded to allow for the yearnings of the spiritual, apparently just being in the Western Cemetery was enough. With no space left for a mastaba in Cemetery G 2100, Kasewedja (G 5340), son of Kanefer (G 2150) chose to have his mastaba built in the en Echelon neighborhood of the Western Cemetery (Manuelian, 2006, P, 229).

Inscribed block of relief (compartment offering list) from G 2156. Even the writing seeme a little cramped. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A5793_NS.

Inscribed block of relief (compartment offering list) from G 2156. Even the writing seeme a little cramped. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A5793_NS.

Out in the cold? With no room in the G 2100 Cemetery, Kasewedja, a son of Kanefer (G 2150), was forced to build his mastaba (G 5340) in the en Echelon field. Here, men at work, looking northwest. Hermann Junker standing on Khufudinefankh to east of southern end of G 5340. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5785.

Out in the cold? With no room in the G 2100 Cemetery, Kasewedja, a son of Kanefer (G 2150), was forced to build his mastaba (G 5340) in the en Echelon field. Here, men at work, looking northwest. Hermann Junker standing on Khufudinefankh to east of southern end of G 5340. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5785.

As time went on, burials became increasingly intrusive, disrupting the clear streets Khufu intended for the Western Cemetery. Manuelian proposes a couple of possible reasons for the decline of the Western Cemetery’s design (Manuelian, 2006, P. 29). Add to that the stone permanent external chapels, and things get rather dense. Could it be an expansion of smaller tombs for family and servants? Was it simply a desire for a prestigious burial next to Khufu’s Pyramid? Were the mastabas where ka-priests no longer performed their functions considered fair game for intrusive burials (i.e.: use it or lose it)? Hopefully, further research will uncover answers, or at least, more possibilities.

Cemetery G 4000: street between G 4520 (to west) and G 4620 (to east), G 4525 and G 4523 (abutting eastern face of G 4520), G 4616 (abutting southern end of G 4620, foreground right), looking north, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A2064_NS.

Cemetery G 4000: street between G 4520 (to west) and G 4620 (to east), G 4525 and G 4523 (abutting eastern face of G 4520), G 4616 (abutting southern end of G 4620, foreground right), looking north, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A2064_NS.

G 4000: street east of G 4000, Hemiunu, exterior wall of corridor chapel (foreground right), looking south, photo by Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5263.

G 4000: street east of G 4000, Hemiunu, exterior wall of corridor chapel (foreground right), looking south, photo by Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID KHM_AEOS_I_5263.

In The Western Cemetery of Khufu Part 3, we will look at the three divisions of the Western Cemetery between the Italian, German, and American missions, how some concessions changed hands, and some of the discoveries of the various teams. As with all of these articles, this is dedicated to the Giza Project team, whose archive, Digital Giza, made this article possible.

Left, Cemetery G 1200: G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS. Right, G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS.

Left, Cemetery G 1200: G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS. Right, G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS.

Cemetery G 4000: G 4631 (abutting eastern face of G 4630), false door tablet inscribed for Nensedjerkai, looking west. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A1096_NS

Cemetery G 4000: G 4631 (abutting eastern face of G 4630), false door tablet inscribed for Nensedjerkai, looking west. Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A1096_NS

Works Cited

Manuelian, Peter Der. In “The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology Proceedings of the Conference Held in Prague, May 30 – June 4, 2004. Miroslav Bárta, Ed. Prague:Czech Institute of Egyptology, 2006. Pp. 221-30. Online: http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf_library/manuelian_okaa_2006.pdf

Reisner, George A. “A History of the Giza Necropolis 1”. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1942. Online: http://giza.fas.harvard.edu/pubdocs/128/full/.

 

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Cemetery en Echelon: Austrian work (1913-1914), looking west a little north of Khufu's Pyramid (western cemetery middle strip). Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_B2371_NS.

Cemetery en Echelon: Austrian work (1913-1914), looking west a little north of Khufu’s Pyramid (western cemetery middle strip). Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_B2371_NS.

Cemetery G 1200: G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS.

Cemetery G 1200: G 1231 (= G 1234), entrance of court, eastern door jamb, inscription and relief (standing figure of Ankh-haf), looking east-southeast, Courtesy of Digital Giza: The Giza Project at Harvard University/Museum of Fine Arts Boston, photo ID HUMFA_A6492_NS.

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Text copyright by Keith Payne, 2017.  The images are in the public domain and may be found at Digital Giza by searching the archive by the photo IDs which I have included in the captions (Note: do not include “photo ID” in your search – just search on the names, generally beginning with “HUMFA,” although sometimes they will start with “KHM” or “MFAB” – I’m sure you get my point).  I really, really encourage you to visit Digital Giza.  You will find, literally, volumes of information connected to that which you seek.  Their new search engine is quite powerful, and the retrieval screen will organize all of the information according to the various media – pages, actual rare books in pdf format that you may read on-site, or download, videos, and, obviously, pictures.

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