The primary source for the dates used in the Em Hotep Dynasties pages is the chronology developed by Ian Shaw and Paul Nicholson for the British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. In an effort to be as comprehensive as possible other dating systems were used to fill in the blanks. These various systems were chosen based on how closely they could be integrated to the Shaw and Nicholson chronology. Note that dates in Egyptian chronologies may radically vary from one Egyptologist to the next.
In addition to Shaw and Nicholson, chronologies from the following sources were used in the compilation of the Em Hotep Dynasties pages.
- Digital Egypt for Universities – An online learning and teaching resource in Egyptology developed at University College London.
- Aiden Dodson – Research Fellow, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol.
- Detlef Franke – Institute of Egyptology of the University of Heidelberg.
- Peter Piccone – Associate Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History, University of Charleston, SC.
- Donald Redford – Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, Pennsylvania State University.
- Kim Ryholt – Associate professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen.
- Turin Cannon – A king’s list that names most of the Pharaohs from the First Dynasty to the Second Intermediate Period.
The Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Zero Dynasty: From Nomads to Villages, From City-States to Kingdoms
Early Dynastic Period
First Dynasty: The Formative Years of Egyptian Culture
Second Dynasty: Religious and Political Strife Threatens the Union
Old Kingdom Period
Third Dynasty: Egypt Enters its Pyramid Age
Fourth Dynasty: The Zenith of the Pyramid Age
Fifth Dynasty: The Decline of the Pyramid Age and the Rise of the Solar Cult
Sixth Dynasty: The Twilight of the Old Kingdom
First Intermediate Period
Seventh and Eighth Dynasties: The Center Cannot Hold, Things Fall Apart
Ninth and Tenth Dynasties: The Herakleopolitan Dynasties
Middle Kingdom Period
Eleventh Dynasty: The Restoration of the Union of Upper and Lower Egypt
Twelfth Dynasty: Power, Peace, and Prosperity
Second Intermediate Period
Thirteenth Dynasty: Rise of the Hyksos, Descent into Chaos
Fourteenth Dynasty: The Kings of the Delta
Fifteenth Dynasty: The Hyksos Dynasty
Sixteenth Dynasty: The Kysos Dynasty
Seventeenth Dynasty: Thebes in Turmoil Rediscovers its Egyptian Spirit
New Kingdom Period
Eighteenth Dynasty: The Egyptian Renaissance and the Dynasty of Celebrities
Nineteenth Dynasty: Might Makes Right—The Ramesside Period Pt. 1
Twentieth Dynasty: From Greatness to Irrelevancy—The Ramesside Period Pt. 2
Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-First Dynasty: The Tanite Dynasty and the Amun Priesthood
Twenty-Second Dynasty: The Libyan Dynasty
Twenty-Third Dynasty: The Libyan Federation of Egypt
Twenty-Fourth Dynasty: The Great Chiefs of the West
Twenty-Fifth Dynasty: The Kushite Dynasty
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty: The Saite Dynasty
Twenty-Seventh Dynasty: The First Persian Dynasty
Twenty-Eighth Dynasty: The Short Reign of the Liberator
Twenty-Ninth Dynasty: The Mendean Kings
Thirtieth Dynasty: The Last Egyptian Dynasty
Thirty-First Dynasty: The Second Persian Dynasty
Thirty-Second Dynasty: The Macedonian Dynasty
Thirty-Third Dynasty: The Ptolemaic Dynasty
Copyright by Keith Payne, 2009. All rights reserved.
Tags: First Dynasty, Fourth Dynasty, Second Dynasty, Third Dynasty